[PSY 103] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (170 pages long)

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PSY 103
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSY 103
Chapter 1: Psychology and life
What makes psychology unique?
Psychology scientific study of the behavior and the mental
processes of individuals
Goals of psychology to describe, explain, predict and help control
behavior
Behavior -
The evolution of Modern psychology
Structuralism emphasized the structure of the mind and behavior
built from elemental sensations
Functionalism emphasized the purpose behind behavior
Seven perspectives on psychology
Seven perspectives on psychology
1. Psychodynamic looks at behavior driven by instinctive
forces, inner conflicts, and conscious and unconscious
motivations
2. Behaviorist views behavior as determined by external
stimulus conditions
3. Humanistic ephasizes a idiidual’s inherent
capacity to make rational choices
4. Cognitive stresses mental processes that affect
behavioral responses
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5. Biological studies relationship between behavior and
brain mechanisms
6. Evolutionary looks at behavior as having evolved as an
adaptation for survival in the environment
7. Sociocultural examines behavior and its interpretation
in cultural context
Chapter 2: Research Methodology
Theory organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon
Determinism all events physical, mental and behavioral are
determined by specific casual factors that are potentially knowable
Standardization using uniform, consistent procedures in all phases of
data collection
Independent variable the factor that is manipulated (cause)
Dependent variable the factor that is measured (effect)
Confounding variable a stimulus other than the variable that is explicitly
itrodued, that a effet a partiipat’s ehaior – the eperieter’s
interpretation of the data is put at risk
Between-subjects design a research design in which different groups of
participants are randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions
Within-subjects design a research design that uses each participant as his
or her own design
Deductive Logic making assumptions (conclusions) based on the results of
previous choices; broad hypothesis to specific conclusion
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