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BIO 121
Jason Wiles

Chapter 32: An Overview of Animal Diversity ▯ Nutritional Mode o Ingestion (live organisms or nonliving organic material) ▯ Use enzymes to digest ▯ Cell Structure and Specialization o Eukaryotes o Multicellular o Proteins external to cell membrane provide structural support o Have muscle cells and nerve cells – specialized o Tissues: groups of cells with common structure, function, or both ▯ Reproduction and development o Sexually (most) ▯ Dominate stage of life cycle – diploid (2n) o Sperm and egg cells produced directly by meiotic division o **early embryotic development** o Larval state (most animals have 1) ▯ Larva: sexually immature form of an animal, which is morphologically distinct from the adult ▯ Metamorphosis: a developmental transformation that turns the animal into a juvenile that resembles an adult but not sexually mature ▯ History of animals o Neoproterozoix Era (1 billion - 542 Million years ago) ▯ Ediacaran biota: soft-bodied, multicellular eukaryotes • Ex. Some are sponges, others related to living cnidrians ▯ Time of increasing animal diversity o Paleozoic Era (542 - 251 Million years ago) ▯ Cambrian explosion: an increase in animal diversification o Mesozoic Era (251 – 65.5 Million years ago) ▯ Animals spreading to new habitats ▯ First coral reefs ▯ Dinosaurs ▯ First mammal – nocturnal insect-eaters o Cenzoic Era (65.5 million years ago to present) ▯ Mass extinctions ex. Dinosaurs ▯ “Body plan” – Animal Characteristic o body plan: particular set of morphological and developmental traits, integrated to whole functional animal ▯ have evolved ▯ Symmetry ▯ Or absence o Radical symmetry: has a no left and right side, any imaginary slice through central axis divides into mirror images o Bilateral symmetry: has a left and right side, one imaginary cut creates mirror images ▯ Dorsal: top side ▯ Ventral: bottom side ▯ Antherior: front side ▯ posterior: back end o Cephalization: evolutionary trend of brain and nervous system ▯ Tissues o Organization: collegctions of specialized cells o Ectoderm: germ layer covering the surface of the embryo ▯ outer covering of the animal and sometimes central nervous system o Endoderm: innermost germ layer, line pouch that forms during gastrulation ▯ lining of digestive tract o Diploblastic: animals with 2 germ layers o Triploblastic: animals with 3 germ layers ▯ Middle one – mesoderm: fills much of space between ecto and endo ▯ Body cavities o Body cavity: a fluid- or air-filled space between digestive tract and outer body wall ▯ Also called coelom o Coelomate: (true coelom) body cavity completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm o Pseudocoelomates: body cavity lined in part by tissue derived from mesoderm, also by tissue derived from endoderm o Acoelomates: lack body cavity Protostome and Deuterostome development Protostome Deuterostome *Spiral and determinate CLEAVAGE *radical and indeterminate *solid masses of mesoderm COELOM *folds of archenteron form split and form coelom FORMATION coelom *mouth develops from FATE OF *Anus development blastopore BLASTOPORE ▯ Spiral cleavage: planes of cell division diagonal to vertical axis Key Concept Phylum Description Sponges are basal animals that Proifera (sponges) Lack true tissues; have lack true tissues choanocytes (collar cells- flagellated cells that ingest bacteria and tiny food particles.) Cnidarians are an ancient Cnidaria (hydras, jellies, sea Unique stinging structures phylum of eumetazoans anemones, corals) (nematocysts) housed in specialized cells (cnidocytes); diploblastic; radically symmetrical; gastrovascular cavity (digestive compartment with a single opening) Lophotrochozoans, a clade Platyhelminthes Dorsoventrally flattened, identified by molecular data, (flatworms) unsegmented acoelomates; have the widest range of gastrovascular cavity or no animal body forms digestive tract Pseudocoelomates with alimentary canal (digestive Rotifera (rotifers) tube with mouth and anus); ▯ Radical cleavage: parallel or perpendicular jaws (trophi) in pharynx; ▯ Determinate cleavage: developmental fate determined head with ciliated crown ▯ Indeterminate cleavage: each cell could develop into its own eCoblryoates with ▯ Blastopore: indentation that during gastrulation leads to formltonophotresrcheenieron Lophophorates: Ectoprocta, structures bearing ciliated Views of animal phylogeny tentacles) Brachiopoda ▯ Points of agreement Coelomates with three 1. All animals share a common ancestor main body parts (muscular 2. Sponges are basal animalsMollusca (clams, snails, foot, visceral mass, 3. Eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissues mantle); coelom reduced; ▯ Eumetazoans: “true animals”, all but stonges most have hard shell made 4. Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria of calcium carbonate 5. Choragtes and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia Coelomates with segmented body wall and Chapter 33: An Introduction to Invertebrates internal organs (except Annelida (segmented digestive tract, which is ▯ Invertebrates: animals that lack a backbone (ex. Christmas treeunsegmented) o 95% of known animal species ▯ suspension feeders: they capture food particles suspended in the water that passes through their body, which in some species resembles a sac perforated with pores ▯ spongocoel: a central cavity where water is through in to through pores ▯ Osculum: larger opening, where the water flows out of ▯ Hermaphrodites: each individual functions as both male and female in sexual reproduction by producing sperm and eggs Ecdysozoans are the most Nematoda Cylindrical, unsegmented species-rich animal group (roundworms) body pseudocoelomates with tapered ends; no circulatory system; undergo ecdysis Arthropoda (crustaceans, Coelomates with segmented insects, spiders) body jointed appendages, and exoskeleton made of protein and chitin Echinoderms and chordates Echinodermata(sea stars, Coelomates with bilaterally are deuterostomes sea urchins) symmetrical larve and five- part body organization as adults; unique water Chordata (lancelets, vascular system; tunicates, vertebrates) enoskeleton Coelomates with notochord; doral, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits; post-anal tail Chapter 34: The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates ▯ Vertebrates: chordates with backbone, close relatives of one of the most successful groups of animals to ever swim, walk, slither or fly. ▯ Chordates: bilaterally symmetrical animals, Bilateria belonging to the clade Deuterostomia ▯ Derived Characters of Chordates o Notochord ▯ Longitudinal, flexible rod located between the digestive tube and nerve cord ▯ Provides skeletal support o Dorsal, hollow nerve cord ▯ Develops into the central nervous system o Pharyngeal slits or clefts ▯ In an embryo, a series of pouches separated by grooves form along side the pharynx – clefts • Which develop into slits that open to the outside of the body, which allows water to enter the mouth and exit the body without going through the digestive tract o Gills o Or for vertebrates with limbs, the ear and other parts of the head or neck o Muscular, post-anal tail ▯ Most species is greatly reduced during embryonic development Chordates: notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, muscular post anal tail ▯ Cephalochordata o Basal chordates, marine suspension feeders – cilia ▯ Have the four basic traits of chordates o Ex. Lanelets: earliest diverging group of living chordates ▯ Urochordata o Marine suspension feeders o Ex. Tunicates: chordate characteristics most present in larval stage – a few minutes Craniates: chordates with a head, two sets of Hox genes, neural crest ▯ Neural crest: collection of cells that appear near the dorsal margins of the closing neural tube in an embryo o Cells disperse throughout body ▯ teeth, cartilage of skull, inner skin layer, some neurons ▯ Myzini o Jawless marine organisms o Have a head with skull and brain, eyes o Ex. Hagfish Vertebrates: craniates with a backbone, Dix genes duplication ▯ Petromyzontida o Jawless marine organisms o Feed by attaching to fish and ingesting blood o Ex. Lampreys Gnathostomes: vertebrates with jaws (hinged), four sets of Hox genes ▯ Chondrichthyes o Aquatic gnathostomes ▯ Lateral line system: organs that form a row along each side of the body and are sensitive to vibrations in the surrounding water o Cartolaginous skeleton – skeleton made of cartilage o Ex. Sharks, rays, skates.. ▯ Some sharks are oviparous: lay eggs that hatch outside the mothers body ▯ Ovoviviparous: retain fertilized eggs in the oviduct – hatch inside mother ▯ Viviparous: young develop within uterus, nutrients through placenta Osteichthans: bony skeleton o Operculum: protective bony flap that covers gills o Swim bladder: air sac that helps control buoyancy ▯ Actinopterygii o Aquatic gnathostomes o Bony skeleton and maneuverable fins supported by rays o Ex. Ray-finned fishes ▯ Actinistia – muscular fins or limbs o Ancient lineage of lobe-fins o Rod shaped bones surrounded by a thick layer of muscle in pectoral and pelvic fins Tetrapods: four limbs, neck, fused pelvic girdle ▯ Amphibia o Four limbs descended from modified fins o Moist skin that functions as gas exchange o Many live in water (as larvae) and on land (as adults) o Ex. Frogs, salamanders, caecilians Amniotes: amniotic egg, rib cage ventilation o Amniotic egg: four specialized membranes – amnion, chorion, yolk sac and allantois ▯ Reptilia o One of two groups of living amniotes o Have amniotic eggs and rib cage ventilation – key adaptations for life on land o Endothermic: capable of maintaining body temperature through metabolic activity o Ex. Tuataras, lizards, snakes, turtles ▯ Mammalia o Evolved from synapsid ancestors o Include egg-laying monotremes – platypus o Pouched marsupials – kangaroos, oposums o Eutherians – placental mammals o Primates ▯ Opposable thumb: can touch the fingerprint side of the tip of all four fingers o Humans derived characters – bipedal and have a larger brain and reduced jaw compared with other apes ▯ Hominin: human and species that more are more closely related to humans then chimps Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Ecology: the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment Global Ecology ▯ how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution of organisms across a biosphere o Biosphere: global ecosystem – sum of all the planet’s ecosystems and landscapes Landscape Ecology ▯ factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems o Landscape: or seascape, mosaic of connected ecosystems Ecosystem Ecology o Energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and environment • Ecosystem: community of organisms in an area and the physical factors they interact with Community Ecology • Examines how interactions between species (preditation, competition), affect community structure and organization o Community: group of populations of different species in an area Population Ecology o Analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why is changes ▯ Population: group of individuals of the same specie
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