COM 107—Spring 2017
The exam will focus on the material we have covered since Exam 2.
multiple choice questions and True/False questions
a few short essay questions.
Know the differences between advertising and public relations.
• Advertising: focus on products with intent to sell
o Controlled publicity purchased by individual or company
o Clients buy space or time to promote product & consumers know who paid for
• Public Relations (PR): communication with the public and media
o Attempts to secure favorable media publicity to promote a client
o Uses news media to promote PR campaign as news
o Purpose not always evident to public or news media
o Range of activities designed to persuade audiences
o PR Builds and Maintains:
▪ PR helps to identify relationships that need to be cultivated
▪ PR helps to establish relationships
▪ PR helps to understand the dynamics of key relationships
▪ PR helps to make relationship as helpful to the organization as possible
Why did public relations first develop? What is the role of “publicity?” Who are press
agents? How was the development of PR linked to developments in journalism?
• Development of PR:
o Growth of investigative journalism
o Growing need to “handle the press”
o Ivy Lee (coined the term “public relations,” & pioneered the modern press release)
▪ Shaping the facts
• Presenting or misrepresenting facts to press
• Early photo ops
• Role of Publicity:
o Messages that spread information about a person, corporation, issue or policy in
▪ Promote positive
▪ Diminish negative
• Press Agents:
o Late 1800s
▪ Promoting Theatrical events
▪ P.T. Barnum • Cardiff Giant & Syracuse- pretended to discover a fake fossilized giant,
but once the public figure out it was a fraud they all wanted to see the
▪ Pitching Railroads
• “deadheading”- gave journalist free rides on trains with hope that they
will write a good story about the railroad. – not allowed to accept
money or free rides like this today
Who was Edward Bernays? What is the relationship between cigarettes and suffrage?
• Edward Bernays:
o Refined Ivy Lee’s press release as a PR tool
o Contributed to the development of the theory of PR
o Argues, PR is an applied social science which manages and manipulates the public
opinion via sociology, mass psychology and similar disciplines.
• Cigarettes & Suffrage:
o Torches of Freedom
o Post-WWII, Edward Bernays was hired by the American Tobacco Company to
encourage women to start smoking. At the time it was not publicly acceptable for
women to smoke.
o Bernays staged a public display of women smoking cigarettes during the Easter
Day Parade in New York City
o Women would light up “torches of freedom” during the parade to show they were
equal to men
What role does PR play in politics?
What is crisis communication? Be able to recognize examples.
• “The dialogue between an organization and its publics prior to, during, and after the negative
occurrence. The strategies and tactics are designed to minimize damage to the image of the
organization” (Fearn-Banks, 2002, p.2).
• Key points: must be tough, flexible
What happened to Tylenol in 1982 and how did they respond? How does their response
contrast with VW’s actions in the “Diesel Dupe” crisis?
• E.g. Tylenol Poisoning 1982
o Cyanide contaminated Tylenol capsules kills 6 people
o Someone was contaminating random bottles of Tylenol before they were distributed
o Tylenol Response
▪ Immediate recall
▪ Changing packaging
▪ Regaining Trust
• E.g. Cars Gone Wrong: VW’s “Diesel Dupe”
o EPA found that VW’s sold in U.S. had software installed on diesel engines that cheated
o EPA identified 482,000 cars. VW admits that 11 million worldwide were sold
o Initial response: VW denied it for a year
o Then…They admitted it…and apologized ▪ Fines (~$18 billion in U.S. alone)
▪ Recall of cars/compensation
▪ Execs and others were fired
Who are the publics for PR practitioners?
o A GROUP of people joined by a common ISSUE
o This group can evolve on its own
o This group can hurt the organization
o This group can help the organization
o This group might have a stake in the organization
o There is ALWAYS more than 1 public for every issue
Be able to recognize (or give) examples of ways in which the Internet and social media have
allowed the public to react to and provide feedback on PR campaigns.
PR & Social Media – “love hate relationship”
o Increase sense of authenticity in your brand
• Group loyalty
o Engaging with the brand via social media
o Broadcasting, getting something to go viral
o Social media leaders are opinion leaders
• Contact- Consumer Relations
o Good and bad of costumer relations
▪ E.g. Bad Yelp reviews
• Trend & Pattern Identification
o Producers can study public data and produce the products the data shows consumers
o These companies make money by tracking your data and selling that information to
advertisers, then sell ad space on their platforms to the ad companies.
o How many views did “it” get
• Consumer problems-
o Publishing problems
o “United Breaks Guitars”
▪ Had an impact on sales, lead to an internal review
• Changing customer service
o Post- “United Breaks Guitars”
How can advertising boycotts—and public calls for advertising boycotts influence
programming and organizations’ responses (e.g. United and FoxNews)?
• Consumer Relations o Consumer problems-
▪ Publishing problems
▪ “United Breaks Guitars”
• Had an impact on sales, lead to an internal review
o Changing customer service
▪ Post- “United Breaks Guitars”
o O’Reilly And Advertising Boycotts
How can social media be used to promote a client or provide publicity?
• PR & Social Media – “love hate relationship”
▪ Increase sense of authenticity in your brand
o Group loyalty
▪ Engaging with the brand via social media
▪ Broadcasting, getting something to go viral
▪ Social media leaders are opinion leaders
o Contact- Consumer Relations
▪ Good and bad of costumer relations
• E.g. Bad Yelp reviews
o Trend & Pattern Identification
▪ Producers can study public data and produce the products the data shows
▪ These companies make money by tracking your data and selling that
information to advertisers, then sell ad space on their platforms to the ad
▪ How many views did “it” get
The Printed Word/Magazines
How did technological developments, a growing market, and perceived need impact the
growth of the book and magazine industries?
• Influences on Development
o Technological developments
▪ Handwritten works
• Made books incredibly valuable
▪ Printing press (Guttenberg)
• Cost of books went down, availability went up
▪ Increasingly literate population drives demand for reading material
o Perceived need ▪ Desire for reading material- stories
According to lecture, what different “roles” do books fulfill?
• The Role of Books
o Educational role
o Sources of information and entertainment
o Cultural “artifacts”
o Source material for other entertainment formats
▪ Movies/TV shows based on books
o “News-books” influence on policy and public opinion
▪ Books written about events
What are the “types of publishing” identified in lecture and in the text? Be able to identify
• Trade publishing
o Hardback, paperback
• Educational publishing
o High cost
o Don’t sell as many, they have to pay to use many photographs used in the books, and
there are less versions than Trade published books, so the price is generally higher.
• Religious Publishing
What are independent publishers more likely than “trade” publishers to produce?
• Niche topics
In what ways are books marketed and promoted?
o Few books are Book Club selections, movie tie-ins, or NY Times reviews
o Online promotion
o Marketing through “co-op”
▪ Payment for placement in bookstores
Are the top trade book publishers owned by U.S. companies or by international
• Many of the top trade book publishers are part of foreign-owned multinationals
How does synergy, product placement, and cross-promotion affect the book industry?
o CBSs 60 Minutes and S&S authors
▪ Interview Subjects – Book Promotion
o HarperCollins and FOX
▪ HarperCollins has an office on the Fox studio lot
▪ Product placement on FOX shows • Crichton books appear prominently on a bookshelf during The O.C.
How have online sales affected bookstores? What percentage of online sales does Amazon
• Effect of Online Sales on Bookstores
o Increase in online book sales; decrease in bookstores and in-store purchasing
o Increase in businesses like Amazon
• Amazon accounts 65% of all new online book units
o Also, accounts for 43% of US online retail sales
What was the effect of the 1879 Postal Act on the magazine industry?
• lowered the mailed rates for magazines, which increased subscriptions
• 1879 Postal Act:
o The primary purpose of the 1879 Postal Act, or Mail Classification Act, was to create a
distinction between second and third class mail. Material deemed second class could be
sent at a cheaper rate of two cents per pound. To qualify, a periodical needed to be
numbered and printed at least four times a year, printed in a known location, printed
without a bound cover and have a legitimate list of subscribers, among other
• Effects on Magazine Industry:
o Beyond the cost issues, the act had a more significant effect: By lowering postage for
periodicals, circulation in the magazine and newspaper industries exploded, helping
spur changes in marketing and communications, as well as society overall.
o However, second class quickly became the fastest growing mail segment, eclipsing first
class, and it soon became a burden on the postal service. To make matters worse the
postal service also suspected that much of the mail being sent as second class did not
qualify for the rate.
What types of audiences’ do most magazines target? How do magazines generate revenue?
How has the digital media environment affected magazine sales and distribution?
o General readership of non-specialists
• Revenue generated through,
o Ads, Subscriptions, and off-the-rack sales; in that order in terms of lucrativeness.
• Magazine sales in a digital media environment
o Sales are significantly down
o Printing magazine paper is a dying industry
o Online magazines make profit with Ads and subscriptions
The Music Industry
What was the patronage system?
• The Patronage System
o Wealthy patrons
o Music to order
o Music to attract wealthy patrons How was sheet music marketed in the 19 Century?
• 19 century
o Sheet music publishers
▪ Performers played songs in shops to encourage purchases)
o Growth of the music industry
▪ Printing presses cheaper paper
▪ Higher levels of education, including music education
▪ Middle-class and up usually taught their children (often girls) a musical
What types of materials were early records made of? What was the impact of WWII on
• Recorded Music
o Music Boxes & Automatons
o 1850s, French printer Leon Scott de Martinville’s “lamp black” recordings
o 1877, Edison “tin foil” recordings played black sound
o 1866 Bell & Tainter “wax cylinders”
▪ Office voice recorders
▪ Novelty Music
▪ Problems w/ durability and mass production
o 1887: Berliner—Gramophones & Flat Disks (records)
▪ Mass Production & Labels
• Impact of WWII
o Records go from being made from Shellac to Vinyl
o 1948: LPs are born (33 1/3 rpm)
o 1949: 45s