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Final

COM 107 Final.doc

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Communications
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COM 107
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Rubin

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COM 107 Final ***Read 4,3,6,8 for extra credit Chapter 3: Audiotape (1940s): lightweight magnetized strands finally made possible sound editing and multiple-track mixing, in which instrumentals or vocals could be recorded at one location and later mixed onto a master recording in another studio.  Home-dubbing  Portable cassette players  Sony Walkman Stereo: invented in 1931 by Alan Blumlein (not used until 1958) permitted the recording of two separate channels, or tracks, of sound. Analog recording: invented in 1967 by Thomas Stockham, which captures the fluctuations of sound waves and stores those in a record’s grooves or a tape’s continuous steam of magnetized particle. Digital Recording: translates sound waves into binary on-off pulses and stores that information as numerical code Compact Discs: Sony and Phillips combined to create a digitally recorded disc and player to take advantage of this new technology, cheaper than vinyl or audiocassettes MP3: file format that was developed in 1992, which enables digital recordings to be compressed into smaller, more manageable files – swap these online, they use up less space and can be uploaded faster  Napster in 1999 – free music file-swapping is illegal  P2P (peer-to-peer): Grokster, Limewire, Morpheus, eDonkey, Kazaa, BitTorrent, eMule  iTunes is ok (2003)  BigChampagne.com tracks the world’s most popular downloaded songs and shares with radios *Music’s convergence with radio in 1950 saved the industry, but music’s convergence with the Internet unraveled the music industry in the 2000s Pop music: music that appeals either to a wide cross section of the public or to a sizable subdivision within the larger public based on age, region, or ethnic background (e.g. teenagers, southerners, Mexican Americans). Jazz: developed in New Orleans, it is an improvisational and mostly instrumental music form; it absorbs and integrates a diverse body of musical styles, including African rhythms, blues, and gospel. Cover music: a song recorded or performed by another artist Rock and roll: hit in the mid-1950’s; it was a blues slang for “sex”, lending it instant controversy. It combined the vocal and instrumental traditions of pop with the rhythm and blues sounds of Memphis and country twang of Nashville.  Combined sound recording and radio  set the stage for music distribution and production today  Cold war  escape the world  Black and white integration  Blur between high and low culture  Confuse issues of sexual identity and orientation  Blurred country and city (Memphis and Nashville) o Rockability: combining country or hillbilly music, southern gospel, and Mississippi delta blues to create this sound  Combines Northern and southern influences  white man who sounded black, Elvis Presley  Blurred sacred and secular  White cover black music  Payola: the practice of record promoters paying deejays or radio programmers to play particular songs (1959)  rock and roll led to corruption and juvenile delinquency Rhythm and Blues (R&B): blues-based urban black music, featuring “huge rhythm units smashing away behind screaming blues singers Soul: transforming the rhythms and melodies of older R&B, pop, and early rock and roll into this  mixing gospel and blues with emotion and lyrics Folk music: songs performed by untrained music, passed down mainly though oral traditions, from the banjo and fiddle tunes of Appalachia to the accordion-lez zydeco of Louisiana and the folk-blues of the legendary Leadbelly.  Political Folk-rock: started by Bob Dylan, led millions to protest during the turbulent 60’s (war) Psychedelic era: named for the mind-altering affects of LSD and other drugs, artistic expression could be enhanced by mind-altering drugs, led to the free speech movement, in which many artists and followers saw experimenting with drugs as a form of personal expression and a response to the failure of traditional institutions to deal with social and political problems Punk rock: rose in the 1970’s to challenge orthodoxy and commercialism of the record business – return to the basics of rock and roll; simple chord structures, catchy melodies, and politically or socially challenging lyrics, “do it yourself” Grunge: significant development of rock in 190’s; messy guitar sound and the anti- fashion torn jeans and flannel shirt appearance of its musicians and fans Alternative rock: punk and grunge are subcategories; describes many types of experimental rock music that offered a departure from the theatrics and staged extravaganzas of 1970’s glam rock. Hip-hop: urban culture that includes rapping, cutting (sampling) by deejays, break dancing, street clothing, poetry slams, and graffiti art Gangster rap: in seeking to tell the truth about gang violence in American culture, has been accused of creating violence Oligopoly: a business situation in which a few firms control most of an industry’s production and distribution resources  music industry Indies: small independent production houses that record less commercially viable music, or music they hope will become commercially viable (11 to 15%) Artist & Repertoire Agents (A&R): talent scouts of the music business, who discover, develop and sometimes manage artists Online piracy: unauthorized online file-sharing Counterfeiting: illegal reissues of out-of-print recordings and the unauthorized duplication of manufacturer recordings sold on the black market at cut-rate prices Bootlegging: the unauthorized videotaping or audio taping of live performances, which are then sold illegally for profit Performance royalty: paid when the song is played on the radio, on television, in a film, in a public space, and so on. Mechanical royalty: paid each time a recording of their song is sold. Chapter 4: Telegraph: the precursor of radio technology was invented in the 1840’s (Samuel Morse) Morse Code: a series of dots and dashes that stood for letters in the alphabet – telegraph operators transmitted news and messages simply by interrupting the electrical current along a wire cable. First line was from Washington D.C. to Baltimore. Electromagnetic waves: invented by James Maxwell in 1860’s were invisible electronic impulses similar to visible light Radio waves: signals could be sent from a transmission point to a reception point Wireless telegraph: a form of voiceless point-to-point communication (1896) Tesla = inventor of radio, not Marconi Wireless telephony: wireless voice and music transmissions, aka RADIO Broadcasting: transmission of radio waves (also TV signals) to a broad public audience Narrowcasting: before broadcasting, was the person-to-person communication like the telegraph or telephone Radio Act of 1912: in the wake of the Titanic accident; radio waves could not be owned and that they were a collective property of all Americans – required a license Network: a cost-saving operation that links a group of broadcast stations that share programming produced at a central location. Option time: CBS paid an affiliate station $50 per hour for an option on a portion of their time Radio Act of 1927: licensees did not own their channels but could only license them as long as they operated to serve the “public interest, convenience, or necessity” Federal Radio Commission (FRC): the president appointed members; oversee licenses and negotiate channel problems Communications Act of 1934: the FRC became the FCC; its jurisdiction covered radio, telephone, and telegraph (later TV, cable, and the Internet). Transistors: small electrical devices that, like vacuum tubes, could receive and amplify radio signals  less power, less heat, more durable, and less expensive, tiny • Radio could go where television could not FM (frequency modulation): static free radio reception; ideal for music AM (amplitude modulation): stressed the volume, or height, of radio waves Format radio: management rather than deejays controlled programming each hour Rotation: playing top songs many times during the day Top 40 format: the number of records stored in a jukebox; 40 most popular hits in a given week as measured by the record sales • Hot clock (program log) – what deejays should do during each hour Album-oriented rock: progressive rock that had been tamed and absorbed by mainstream radio Drive time: radio prime time when people are commuting to and from work and school (6 and 9am-4 and 7pm) Pacifica Foundation: started by Lewis Kimball Hill who ran experimental public stations NPR and PBS are the first noncommercial networks Public Broadcasting Act of 1967: NPR and PBS were mandated to provide alternatives to commercial broadcasting Satellite radio: XM and Sirius use satellites launched to cover the continental US and created a subscription (2002) – famous hosts, access on cell phones, variety of stations HD radio: digital technology that enables FM and AM radio broadcasters to multicast two or three additional compressed digital signals with their traditional analog frequency (2004) Internet radio: emerged in the 1990’s; come in two types: AM, FM satellite or HD streaming simulcast version of its on-air signals • Pandora, Yahoo!, AOL radio, Last.fm, Slacker Podcasting: iPod and broadcasting, refers to the practice of making audio files available on the Internet so listeners can download them onto their computers and transfer them to portable mp3 players  niche Low-power FM (LPFM): class of 10-100watt stations in order to give voice to local groups lacking access to the public airwaves Chapter 5: Shaping TV technological innovations and patent wars, wrestling control of content away from advertisers, and the socio-cultural impact of the infamous quiz-show scandals Analog: FCC’s standard (based on radio waves) for all US TV sets in 1941 (30+ countries also) Digital: news signals that replaced analog in 2009- translate TV images and sounds into binary codes (HDTV) BIG 3 = ABC, CBS, NBC Prime-time Program: between 8-11pm, the hours when networks typically draw their target audiences and charge the highest ad rates • Geritol’s Twenty-One rigged in 1957 • TV images could be manipulated • High and low culture Network era: late 1950’s when networks gained control over TV’s content, until the late 1970’s • Big 3 = 95% of all prime-time viewing o Stopped with the introduction of DVD and VCR CATV: community antenna television (the first small cable system), which originated in NY, PA, and Oregon due to buildings and mountains that blocked TV signals • Advantages of cable: each channel gets different wire so no interference also running signals through coaxial cable increased channel capacity Narrowcasting: providing of specialized programming for diverse and fragmented groups  nichification Basic Cable: today, a system includes 100+ channel line-up comprised of local broadcast signals, access channels (for local government and general public use), regional PBS stations, and a variety of other channels (ESPN, CNN, USA, Bravo, Nick, Disney, Comedy Central, etc.) and others depending on a systems capacity and regional interests Superstitions: independent TV stations uplinked to satellite such as WGN in Chicago Premium Channels: no advertisements, recent and classic Hollywood movies, and original series Pay-per-view: offers recently released movies or special one-time events to subscribers who paid a designated charge to their cable company, allowing them to view the program Video-On-Demand: enables customers to choose among hundreds of titles and watch their selection whenever they want in the same way as video, pausing and fast- forwarding, when desired • Netflix, DVR, video iPods end video store era Direct Broadcast Satellite: present a big challenge to cable –especially in isolated regions where the instillation of cable wirings hasn’t always been possible/profitable- DBS transmits its signal directly to small satellite dishes near a customers home • Also other tiers of service Kinescope: when a film camera recoreded a live TV show off a studio monitor (poor quality, does not survive) Sketch Comedy: short comedy skits, TV variety shows (expensive) Situation comedy: also known as a sitcom, features a reoccurring cast; each episode establishes a narrative situation, complicates it, develops increasing confusion among its characters and then usually resolves them Domestic Comedy: characters and settings are usually more important than complicated predicaments (dramedy) Anthology Dramas: started in the 1950’s and brought live dramatic theatre to a TV audience • Teleplays  scripts written for TV • Hard to advertise because they were dark plots • Audience was too wealthy and could afford to actually buy tickets to theatre • Expensive to produce and really controversial Episodic Series: first used on radio in 1929; main characters continue from week to week, sets and locales remain the same, and technical crews stay with the show • Chapter shows: self-constrain stories with a reoccurring set of main characters who confront problems, face a series of conflicts and find a resolution • Serial programs: open-ended episodic shows, story-lines continue from episode to episode (soap operas) o Soap operas o Hybrid – mixes comedy and grim (chapter and serial) Affiliate Stations: stations that contract with a network to carry its program Prime-Time Access Rule (PTAR): introduced in 1970, reduced the networks control of prime time programming from 4 to 3 hours Fin-syn: constituted the most damaging attack against the network TV monopoly in TV history (Financial interests + Syndication rule)  no profits from re-runs Disney acquired ABC in 1995  too much power Must-Carry Rules: required all cable operators to assign channels to and carry all local TV broadcasts on their systems • Local network affiliates, independent stations, and public TV channels would benefit from cables clearer reception Access Channels: in 1972, FCC mandated this; required cable systems to provide and fund a tier of non-broadcast channels dedicated to education, government, and the public Leased Channels: citizens could buy time on these channels and produce their own programs or present controversial views Electronic publishers: cable operators argued that they should be able to choose which channels and content to carry Common Carriers: services that do not get involved in content like cable Telecommunications Act of 1996: bringing cable fully under the federal rules that had long governed the telephone, TV, and radio industries  combine all of the industries • Spur competition, and lower rates (didn’t happen) Third-screens: computer type screens are 3 major way to view content Time Shifting: a viewer records a show and watches it at another time that is more convenient  threat to advertising Below the line costs: 40% of programs production budget which includes: special effects, equipments, sets, costume, etc. Above the line costs: “software”, includes the creative talent such as: actors, producers, writers, etc. and is 60% of a programs budget (except in long running shows where actors salaries are higher) Deficit Financing: programs funded by the production company which leases the show to a network or cable channel for a license fee that is lower than production • More money from re-runs, ads, and subscriptions Syndication: leasing TV stations or cable networks the exclusive right to air TV shows Evergreens: popular old network re-runs Fringe Time: programming immediately before the evenings prime time schedule and following the local evening news or networks late night talk shows Off-Network Syndication (“Re-runs”): older programs that no longer run during network prime time are made available First-Run Syndication: any program specifically produced for sale into syndication markets Rating: statistical estimate expressed as the percentage of houses that are tuned into a program in the sample market Share: statistical estimate of the percentage of homes that are tuned to a specific program compared with those using their sets at the time of the sample • Live, live plus 24 hours, live plus 7 days Multiple System Operators (MSOs): corporations like Comcast and Time Warner that own many cable systems Multichannel Video Programming Distributors (MVPDs): major players; DBS providers like DirectTV and Dish Network • Top 10 control 70% of cable and DBS households Chapter 6: Celluloid: thin strips of transparent, pliable material that could hold a coating of chemicals, sensitive to light. Kinetograph: combination of Edison’s light bulb, Goodwin’s celluloid, and Le Prince’s camera to create a movie camera Kinetoscope: single person viewing system - Housed fifty feet of film that revolved on spools - Cinemotograph: a combined camera, film development, and projection system by the Lumiere brothers in 1894 Vitascope: Edison patented this large-screen system, which enabled filmstrips of longer length to be projected without interruption Narrative films: movie that tells stories  first was, The Life of an American Fireman Nickelodeons: a form of movie theatre whose name combines the admission price with the Greek work for “theater”  small and uncomfortable Vertical integration: controlling all levels of the movie business (production, distribution, and exhibition) gave certain studios great power and eventually spawned a film industry into an oligopoly Studio system: firmly controlled creative talent in the industry  being under contract made it easier to make a film Block booking: type of distribution where to gain access to popular films with big starts, exhibitors would have to agree to rent new or marginal films with no stars; studios could test new stars Multiplexes: multiple screens lure middle-class crowds to interstate highway crossroads Big Five: Paramount, MGM, Warner Brothers, Twentieth Century Fox, and RKO Little Three: these did not own theatres: Columbia, Universal, and United Artists Blockbuster: The Birth of the Nation was the first feature-length film (more than an hour long) and cost moviegoers $2 admission Talkies: films with sound in them Documentary: “the creative treatment of actuality”; interprets reality by recording real people and settings Cinema verite: “truth film”; closer to reality Hollywood Ten: witch-hunts for political radicals in the film industry by the House Un- American Activities Committee led to these hearings and subsequent trial  9 screenwriters and 1 director who refused to discuss their memberships or to indentify communist sympathizers Paramount decision: forcing the studios to gradually divest themselves of their theaters (Supreme court ruling) Studios make money on movies from: theater box-office revenue (especially 3-D), DVD sales and rentals, cable and television outlets (pay-per-view, video-on-demand, premium cable, network and basic cable, and syndicated TV market), distributing films in foreign markets, distributing the work of independent producers and filmmakers who hire the studios to gain wider circulation, and last merchandise licensing and product placement in the movies. Leading 7 theater chains: AMC Entertainment, Regal Cinemas, Cinemark USA, Cineplex Entertainmen
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