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COM346 Test 2

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Syracuse University
COM 346

COM 346 NOTES Week 1 Reading: Mulvey • Male is active, female is passive • Male gaze ▯ women displayed as erotic o Alien presence with no narrative Levy • Male Chauvinist Pig ▯ Female Chauvinist Pig (FCP) o Post-feminist, funny, gets it, doesn’t mind cartoonish stereotypes of female sexuality o Disgusting/degrading turns to giving (join them instead of beat them) o Everyone is Tarzan now McKibbon • BBC structural changes during the war o New Programs  Light Programme (1945) came after Forces service • Better known radio programs ▯ post-war designed for woman (domestic and individual)  Home Service  Third Programme (1946) o Regional programs were restored • BBC had no interest in TV although it was clearly the future Whelehan • Magazine Loaded o Lad motif – he is almost always white, part soccer thug, part lager lout, part arrant sexist (offensive) o 1998 showed increase in Loaded, Maxim and FHM (three most popular laddish magazines) o Women are objects o Males only care about sports, pop, alcohol, soft drugs, heterosex, and soft porn (invites feminist rebuttal)  Features include dehumanizing women  Nude Helen Mirren o Masculine personal space, fences off feminist criticism (dumb down) • Laddis productions depend on a familiarity with feminism o Jack the lad is sexist (men make sure to avoid this, or SEEM to avoid) o Feminism represents old women spoiling mens fun • Men’s style magazines o If magazines respond to sexual politics then they are demasculanizing themselves • Feminizing of the workplace o Increasing male unemployment and unhappiness o Male identity crisis ▯ introduction of new lads  Generated by feminism, gay liberation and anti-racist movements o New lads represent a transition from past conventions of masculinity to a kinship with new man (pro-feminist men)  New man is created by media o Magazines present sexual ambivalence  Old magazines represented masculine men  New magazines show groomed and stylish men (80s) • 90s man who wants to get laid o Women being dehumanized in pictures ▯ women wanting to be promiscuous in pictures (free will)  Sexy woman becomes successful one  Images represent repression rather than liberation but since women are actively participating its hard to question Week 1 Class: WOMEN • Beauty press vs mens/glamour prints o How do these women align themselves as FCP? o By commoditizing your sexuality are you no longer exploiting yourself? (ie the kardashians) • Fame vs celebrities • Dependent on class, same sexualized message is stylized (Zoo vs GQ) Male gaze ▯ cinematic…the way in which women are framed in cinema and photography is meant to appeal to men -Publications for women also use male gaze (submissive) because some people see this act as a way to step up into a higher social class -First WW brought changes for women (fashion, culture, etc)…ie: allowed to cut their hair -WW2 women targeted by propaganda posters -WW2 ended a lot of servitude (freed women and lower classes) -Churchill – ‘never has so much been owed by so many to so few’ -▯ battle was organized by women -Post War tv ▯ women encouraged to go back home and “normalize” country to the way it was post war -“Auntie BBC” ▯ should be uncle bc it is all orchestrated by men -Daily mail readers ▯ would watch what not to wear but this show is a novelty because they are of upper class (classicism) -divider of imbalance between men and women ▯ women bear children TMIE LINE 1918 ▯ women get voting rights (over 30 years old and under certain conditions) 1929 ▯ women granted equal voting rights 1967 ▯ women permitted to have abortions 1970 ▯ first womens liberations movement in london 1974 ▯ contraception free for all women 1975 ▯ sex discrimination act in law ▯ education, recruitment, advertising ▯ ALSO employment protection act (cant fire bc pregnant) ▯ ALSO Equality PayAct 1976 ▯ Domestic ViolenceAct Week 2 Reading: Barfe • Limp-Wristed Televtion (LWT) – more open atmosphere than the BBC o Mike Mansfield o Flamboyant and stylish….panache o Controlled by Jews o Spoofs and comedies with Hollywood flare o High quality/extravagant productions o Bell openly gay Barfe • Comedy successes o Navy Lark – situation comedy (inept sailors) o Beyond Our Ken – sketch series (Kenneth Horne)  Became Round the Home in 1965 ▯ more risqué • Coded with innuendo that wouldn’t offend people • Homosexuality o Duncan Norvelle – host who turned show business orthodoxy on its head. Cooper • Heteronomortavity (world of heterosexuals) ▯ gender is naturally ascribed, natural and immutable o Homosexuality ▯ willful denial of one’s true self • Media controls power of heteronormativity o People who seem homosexual would be considered weak, comic or evil o Link homosexuality with criminality o Sexual minorities • Social Progress in the media ▯ more positive images of homosexuality o Ellen DeGeneres – coming out was escape from repression  Increased visibility and legitimacy of LGBT  Masking progress ▯ embrace queers while dehumanizing, marginalizing, and attempting to tame  Reinforce heteronormativity rather than challenge  Narratives heteroideology – heterosex mainstream narratives • Culture was built on heterosexual narratives  Queer Theory – explicate narratives that make heterosexuality rather than sexual transgression seem strange, resist sexual oppression and normalization  Gender is socially constructed ▯ try and reverse that  Lipstick lesbians ▯ white middle class who are concerned with makeup and looks…femme Ciasullo • Notions of butch and femme are gone (two types of lesbians) o So many types/styles of lesbian to classify o Issue of “looking the part” ▯ lesbians turn themselves into a classic lesbian that is typically stereotyped (skirts to pants) because of culture  Acceptance by lesbian community as much as straight one (visibility and butchness)  Authenticity • Lesbian Chic (1993) featured by New York Magazine and the cover of chanteuse k.d. lang and then all magazines followed o Cindy Crawford participated o Lesbians were being represented (Mademoiselle and Ladies’ Home Journal) o Positive representation caused skepticism  Now being watched more closely  Second wave of feminist movement, lesbians were eliminated by the white, middle class, heterosexual image  Lesbians also pushed to the back during the gay rights movement by the men Dyer • Gay people attack images of homosexuals in media (STEREOTYPING) o Self-oppression characteristic of gay peoples
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