ETS 146 Final: Final Exam Study Guide
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Department
English Textual Studies
Course
ETS 146
Professor
C.Hanson
Semester
Spring

Description
Chris Connors Final Exam Study Guide Jane feuer - TVs mode of address helps to create a sense of urgency - TV is rarely truly “live” - Suggests that TV actively tries to produce a sense of ‘liveness’ - Argues that ‘liveness’ is part of the ideology, not the ontology of television Classic Hollywood Cinema (CHC) - Dominant style of filmmaking fully articulated in Hollywood studios by the 1920s - 2 key structuring elements o Formal elements: ▪ Aspects which pertain to the construction and presentation of the film • E.g. establishing shots, shot-reverse-shot, cutting on action, etc. • “Invisible style”- we are unaware of the construction behind what we’re seeing o Narrative elements: ▪ Characteristics which improve upon the storytelling aspect of filmmaking • E.g. protagonist-centered action; character overcomes obstacles to achieve goal, etc. o Men & Women ▪ Men: (active) compete for possession: money, women, etc. ▪ Film ends with resolution of problems and heterosexual coupling Laura Mulvey: “The Gaze” - 3 types of “gaze” used in CHC o Camera’s gaze: what the camera captures o Character’s gaze: how the characters look at one another o Audience/Spectator’s gaze: what the viewer chooses to look at - Each type tends to be masculinized and heterosexual - When we watch a film, we identify with characters - We are also encouraged to identify with the camera and its gaze Masculinity, Femininity, and Gender Gender conventions: - Masculinity: o Work o Pain/power o Sport The Pillow Book: Gaze - Jerome’s initial scenes with the publisher o Camera: Jerome’s body o Characters: at each other, sexually o Audience: looks at/or not at Jerome’s body - Every shot that isn’t POV utilizes multiple kinds of gaze - Breaking Conventions: o Both male and female bodies are exposed and sexualized ▪ Conventions of male representation are broken • CHC- the gaze is that of a heteronormative male • E.g. fully nude Jerome; homosexual intercourse; ambiguous depictions of homosexuality (The Publisher) • Emotional displays by men; E.g. potential suicide via overdose of a male character Screens, Medium Specificity, and Remediation: Leon Albert: - Argues for treatment of the painting frame as “aperta finestra” (an “open window”) - Advocates representation of 3-demensional space on 2-demensional plane Anne Friedberg: - Looks at relationships between traditional and modern concepts of: o Window ▪ Traces notion of window to Albert’s definition ▪ This notion of “window” emphasizes perspective ▪ Window is “common metaphor” for a number of frames, including • Painting; Photography; Cinema; Television; Computer, etc. o Frame ▪ Marks separation between material surface of the wall and the immaterial space contained in the frame ▪ Late 1800s:m Cinema introduces immobile viewers to moving images with a frame • Creates a “virtual mobility” for viewer o Screen ▪ Late 20 century, screens became pervasive ▪ Screens demonstrate “convergence” of cinema, TV, computers, and other forms ▪ Operate as “virtual windows” into other spaces and times ▪ Profoundly different than perspectival emphasis of “window” Lev Manovich: 3 Types of Screens 1. Classical: flat, rectangular surface; frontal viewing; exists in our space but acts as a window into another space 2. Dynamic: displays an image changing over time; screen of cinema, TV, video; shows the past; demands viewer’s attention and to disregard what is outside the frame 3. Real-Time: emerges with WWII technology of radar; screen now depicts real-time changes of its referent (monitors, computer screens, etc.) Medium Specificity Noel Carroll: “Tools” and “Sticks” - Argues against “specificity thesis” - Believes that this “thesis” envisions art forms as specialized “tools” - Instead, he suggests art forms are more like “sticks” o Like sticks, art forms are not made for any specific task, and can be used for any number of purposes - Argues, most art forms were not “designed” or created for a specific purpose - Even “invented” forms, like cinema, have been used for many more tasks than the one for which it was designed - The discovery of new uses of a medium is inherently linked to its artistic development Specificity Thesis: Noel Carroll’s Critique - 2 elements: Differentiation and Excellence o Differentiation: every medium has something it does best o Excellence: Every media should do only what it does best - Carroll disagrees: Paul Levinson: Remediation - Builds from Marshal McLuhan’s approach to media - Views remediation as progressive: new forms improve old forms - Defines remediation: the observable trend of media technology to accommodate with increasing capacity the qualities of unmediated human to human interaction o the logic by which media refashion and improve themselves by competition - suggests that media forms are invented to improve on the limits of pre-existing media - believes that media forms develop “anthropotropically” o they develop to resemble the human ▪ following McLuhan’s notion of media as an extension of the senses Remediation: New and old art forms work within proximity of one another - E.g. La Jetee is a movie narrative about a time travel experiment comprised entirely of still photography (cinema, narrative, photography working together) - Digital media of the late 20 , early 21 century makes us more aware of the process of remediation o E.g. E-readers, Laptop’s (Word, ect.) - Bolter & Grusin (B&G) argue that remediation has been at work for centuries Rosin and We Live in Public - “The Quiet Experiment”- Josh Harris set up 24/7 coverage of densely populated living space he created underground in NYC. They Partied and had orgies 24/7 - The permanency of your digital reputation o Internets is an unforgetting mind How did Josh Harris Disappear on the Internet? - Internet relies on current info, he’s not current - “non-unique” name - He buys and apple farm, lives there for 5 years, then moves to Africa… Bolter and Grusin: Remediation - Defined as: formal logic y which new media refashion old media forms - Remediation involves the two “logics” or processes of: o 1. Immediacy o 2. Hypermediacy - The above two definitions change over time because they are use differently by diverse groups - Trace the interplay of immediacy and hypermediacy to the renaissance o Specifically, to the invention and adoption of linear perspective - Explores how “new” technologies use shared strategies - Examines how “old” forms are repurposed and refashioned by “new” forms - Borrows term “remediation” from Paul Levinson, but defines it differently - Definition: “that which appropriates the techniques, forms, and social significance of other media and attempts to rival or refashion them in the name of the real. A medium in our culture can never operate in isolation, because it must enter into relationships of respect and rivalry with other media.” (Bolter and Grusin, 1999: 65) - Remediation works by refashioning both the old and the new media in a continuous process. - Remediation is a mutual exchange - New forms refashion old media - Old media forms refashion themselves in response to new media o E.g. iTunes had to refashion itself in response to new streaming services, like Spotify, creating Apple Music Immediacy: - Primary feature: transparency o The medium is trying to erase itself - Attempts to deny or ignore the medium o Make audience forget about the medium - Strategy to offer a more “authentic” or “real” experience o E.g. VR attempts an immersive experience to make the medium disappear o E.g. Renaissance realism painting Hypermediacy - Primary feature: Opacity o Draws attention to the surface - Unlike immediacy, reminds viewer of the medium - Digital media often use hypermediacy - They combine several different forms or media in their creation o E.g. Websites: ask viewers to “subscribe” or “click on” content, etc. B&G: Immediacy & Hypermediacy - Argue that digital media show us how the two operate in tension and dialogue w/ one another - Immediacy often relies on aspects of hypermediacy - Hypermediacy strives for immediacy Walter Benjamin - Argues, culture has long valued the “original” work in art th - Argues, This emphasis on the original changes in the 20 century - Argues, art has always been reproducible in some manner o Any object can be imitated - Historically, the capacity to imitate has been limited - Notes that an original work exists uniquely in time and space - A reproduction cannot duplicate this aspect of the original (i.e. original time & space) - Describes this unique aspect of the original as its “aura” - The aura is what “withers” away with mechanical reproduction - Access to art has been limited due to social control by those in power, such as: o Aristocracy, Wealthy, Etc. th - In 20 century, “Aura” is no longer relevant - Aura is a social, cultural, and economic construct of the elite Aura - Art is now available to the masses: and the working class - We can now experience and access art without “loss” of the aura - Views the “loss” of the aura as a positive development Lawrence Lessig - Questions and challenges existing copyright law - Views these laws as obsolete in the digital age - Co-founder of Creative Commons Creative Commons - Non-profit organization founded in 2001 - Enables “sharing and use of creativity and knowledge” - Provides legal and licensing tools for these purposes Lessig: Remix - In remix, Lessig uses a binary to describe two primary types of culture o Read-Only o Read/Write Read-Only Culture: Lessig - Favored by analog technologies - Most familiar form of 20 century culture - Focused primarily on consumption - Content provided to a mostly passive audience - Amateurs (audience) consume “tokes of culture” (films, recordings, etc.) - Industry or professional supplies content - Access to content restricted by an “authority” - Hierarchical control of content and distribution Read/Write Culture: Lessig - Facilitated by digital technologies - Access to content is decentralized (can get content anywhere) - R/W culture is more participatory (unlike R-O culture) - Lines between amateurs and professionals are blurred - Relationship between producer and consumer is reciprocal - Remix culture allows audience to create new content from existing sources - Comment on, or repurpose old/existing content Convergence - Digitalization allows for even more inclusive media environments - Text, images, music, speech, video, and more can now be converted to binary form - Digital media thus inherently enables convergence of multiple media forms - The internet is a prime example of this mode of convergence - Convergent devices allow for (and encourage) multiple media devices - New economic and cultural practices, such as: o Multiplatform (E.g. TV on X-box w/ Pandora and YouTube) o Vertical integration (E.g. owning production and distribution, etc.) o Horizontal Integration (E.g. owning several companies in the same aspect of production) Defining New Media Now - Number of scholars describe late 20 century-early 21 century new media as “post-cinema” or “post-television” - Note inherent links to- and influences of- older forms upon “new media” - “new media” is described as convergent - Ways in which old media refashion themselves in response to new media - “new” media is also described in terms of its digital or algorithmic nature Algorithm: Defined - Step-by-step procedure for solving a problem or completing a task, especially by a compute
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