During the 18th century there were many agricultural advancements, including the switch to a 4 field crop rotation, inventions such as the seed drill, manure collection, and enactment of the. Enclosure acts, which allowed for increased crop production. This revolution allowed for population increase and the the increased urbanization and industrialization of european society. Adam smith was a european philosopher who wrote the wealth of nations in 1776 and helped to establish the modern market economy. His book helped to establish the norms of division and specialization of labor, the laws of supply and demand, and the idea of the invisible hand" keeping balance in society. His ideas helped to promote a capitalist and liberal society in which the government played little role in individual"s economic pursuits. Cavour was the prime minister of piedmont sardinia and used nationalism in order to strengthen the state and expand its territory by creating a unified italian state.