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Information Studies
IST 195

• Motherboard: main circuit board of the unit • Central Processing Unit: interprets and carries out the basic function that operates in a computer, contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) • Control unit: component of the processor that directs +coordinates most of the operations in comp • Arithmetic logic unit: performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations • Nanotechnology - is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic or molecular level • Transistors: part of CPU (brings in nanotechnology) • USB port connects up to 127 units • PCI vs PCIe (e=express) • PCI ports can’t hold as much as PCIe ports • PCI= 133mb/s • PCIe=500mb/s • RAM: different types of software • Memory cache speeds process of the computer because it stores frequent used instructions +data • Cache (L1, L2, L3)- holds memory in in cache to speed up computer, load it up faster • Hard Drives vs Solid State • SATA: 150 mb/sec • SATA II: 300 mb/sec • SSD: cannot be fragmented • Bits and Bytes • 1 bit= 2 values • 2 bits= 4 values • 3 bits= 8 values 8=256 • Decimal= base 10 (ten digits) • Binary= base 2 (only 1s and 0s) • ASCII vs Unicode (English vs. all languages) • ASCII takes care of 0-9, a-z, A-Z and is 7 bit= 128 • Unicode includes ASCII and in a universal character set • Kilo, Mega, Giga, Tera, Peta, Exa • Bill Gates: Microsoft • Ken Thompson: Unix • Steve Jobs: Apple • Linus Torvalds: Linux + C programming language • Operating systems manage hardware +software (intermediate b/w the 2) • Def: a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among comp hardware, resources • Kernel: central component of OS: manages memory, order of processes are executed, how info is received • GUI: graphical user interface • Sleep Mode: saves any open docs +programs to RAM, turn off all unneeded notifications and place the computer in a low power state • Hibernate mode: saves any open docs +programs to a hard disk before removing power • Types of OS/tasking • Stand Alone: OS on desktop/laptop • Server: software that was especially developed to serve as a platform for running multi- user computer programs, applications that are networked and programs critical to business computing. • Embedded: ROM chip on mobile device • Single user interventional: required to change from task>task • Cooperative: process voluntarily give up CPU control to other processes from time >time • Pre Emptive: act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system w/o requiring its cooperation, and with the intention of resuming the task at a later
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