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PSY 205 (101)
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Syracuse University
PSY 205

PSY 205, Professor Houck Final Exam Study Guide: Chapters 1-4, 6,7,10-12,14 & 15 Chapter 1 *NOTE: You will not be tested over pages 19-22 in your text (unless a topic discussed on these pages is listed below). • Early and current definitions of psychology • Major figures in psychology and their basic contributions o Wundt – founder of psych o Hall – brought psychology to America o Titchener - o James – led functionalist movement o Watson – founder of behaviorism o Freud – attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior o Skinner – fundamental principle… controversy: ▪ Asserted that all behavior is governed by external stimuli. i.e. free will is an illusion o Rogers - o Maslow – developed hierarchy of needs • Early schools of thought: Functionalism vs. structuralism o Functionalism – investigate the function or purpose of consciousness ▪ WILLIAM JAMES (applied natural selection to human consciousness) o Structuralism – analyze consciousness into its basic tenants ▪ EDWARD TITCHENER (method of introspection) • Professional specialties in psychology and the main differences between them ▪ Experimental – they study behavior processes with human beings and animals such as rats, monkeys and pigeons • Work in university and private research centers ▪ Clinical • Assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders • largest psychology specialties field • Usually work in counseling centers, independent or group practices, hospitals, or clinics ▪ Counseling – use techniques such as interviews and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living ▪ School – work in elementary and secondary schools to to resolve students’ learning and behavior problems ▪ Industrial/organizational – apply psychological principles and research methods • Psychology vs. psychiatry o Psychology – scientific study of human and animal’s behavior and mental processes o Psychiatry – branch of medicine concerned with psychological disturbances • Areas of emphasis/schools of thought within psychology: o Behaviorism – scientific psychology should only study observable behavior ▪ Key behaviorists: • Watson – founder • B.F. skinner – fundamental principle o Humanism ▪ Emphasizes unique qualities of humans and personal worth ▪ People are rational beings, unique from other animals ▪ Humans will fulfill their potential if given opportunities o Cognitive Psychology ▪ Cognition – refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge ▪ Cognitive psychologists study memory, problem solving, decision making (anything that has to deal with mental processing) o Social Psychology ▪ Social psychologists study: attitude, group behavior, attraction, stereotypes ▪ Root of social psychology is how we influence and how we are influenced by other people ▪ Social psychology influenced by WWII • Efforts to understand racism, genocide, mass persuasion of people, etc. o Biological Psychology o Evolutionary Psychology (1980s – present) ▪ Examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value o Positive Psychology – scientific study of the strengths that enable individuals and communities to thrive Chapter 2 • Hypothesis – tentative statement about relationship between 2 or more variables o Specific predicition derived from theory • Theory – system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations and make predictions o Evidence based framework to explain phenomena • Independent Variable vs. Dependent Variable (be able to identify them if given an example) • Research methods in psychology (you should understand the basic components & the pros/cons of each method) o Experiments ▪ Random assignment o Non-experimental designs ▪ Correlational study • Positive vs. negative correlation • Third-variable problem & the directionality problem ▪ Survey • Social desirability bias ▪ Naturalistic observation vs. participant observation ▪ Case study Chapter 3 *NOTE: You will not be held responsible for knowing the peripheral nervous system (page 74 starting at section 3.2 - page 76 of your text), or sections 3.4, 3.5, or 3.7 (unless a topic discussed on these pages is listed below). • Flow of information through neuron: dendrites -> soma -> axon (surrounded by myelin sheath) -> terminal buttons -> synapse • Resting potential -> action potential -> absolute refractory period o All-or-None law • Motor neurons, sensory neurons, mirror neurons • Neurotransmitters (know their basic impact on our behavior) o Dopamine o Serotonin o Ach o Endorphins o Norepinephrine o Oxytocin • Agonist, antagonist, reuptake inhibitor • Major brain structures and functions o Brain lobes o Cerebellum o Limbic system Chapter 4 *NOTE: You will not be held responsible for knowing the auditory, gustatory, or olfactory systems. This means that you will not be tested on the information on pages 127-138 in your text (unless a topic discussed on these pages is listed below). • What is psychophysics? o Difference between sensation and perception • Vision o How do we process visual information (from eye  brain)? o What does the retina do to the images we see?
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