Study Guides (248,398)
United States (123,373)
Psychology (244)
PSY 205 (103)
Palfai (8)
Midterm

PSY 205 test.docx

14 Pages
513 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 205
Professor
Palfai
Semester
Fall

Description
• Learning: reward pathway, self stimulation experiment, James Olds • Learning: A change in behavior as a result of experience that endures, it is reversible, non-heritable, non-maturational, any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience • Reward and Punishment: BF Skinner: the environment selects species, traits, behavior • Positive +Negative Reinforcement: any event that increases the rate of responding A) for that event is a positive reinforcement B): for preventing the event from happening • Operant conditioning: shaping: reinforcing by successive approximation, voluntary action • Operant: involves voluntary behavior as result learning such behavior • Behavior Modification: Case of Susie: 4 yrs old: sister’s daughter- cough, likes money • Case of Lisa: 14 yrs old, hands +knees, father ignored her/kicked her • Aperiodic: higher than continuous • Schedules of reinforcement: fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval • Learning by insight: Edward Tolman: latent learning, mental maps, Kohler’s experiment +classical • Classical conditioning: Ivan Pavlov • UCS: unconditioned stimulus –stimulus that evolves on UCR w/o previous conditioning • UCR: unconditioned response- response that’s evoked naturally • CS: conditioned stimulus-previous neutral stimulus through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a CR • CR: conditioned response- learned reaction to a CS that occurs because of previous conditioning • Classical conditioning: Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination, experimental neurosis, emergence of involuntary responses as a result of learning • Fear learning: John Watson, 4 innate fear reactions, loud noise, loss of support, painful stimulus, unusual pattern of stimulation, Little Albert • Trial: pairing of UCS +CS • Acquisition: initial stage in learning • Stimulus contiguity: occurring together in time +space • Edward Thorndike: law of effect- if behavior leads to rewarding consequence, association b/w behavior +consequence will be strengthened • BF Skinner: principle of reinforcement • Shaping: reinforcement of closer approximations of a desired response • Extinction: weakening of a response tendency • Continuous reinforcement: every instance of a response is reinforced • Intermittent (partial) reinforcement: responses are reinforced only some of the time • Partial reinforcement: takes longer extinguish • Fixed ratio: occurs after fixed # responses • Variable ratio: reinforcement occurs after variable # responses • Fixed interval: reinforcement occurs after fixed amount of time • Variable interval: reinforcement occurs after variable amount of time • Reinforcement: goal to increase behavior/response • Punishment: goal to decrease behavior/response • Positive reinforcement: give • Positive punishment: extra • Negative reinforcement: take something away/stopping • Negative punishment: consequence • Primary reinforcer: satisfy biological needs • Secondary reinforce: conditioned reinforcers • Instinctive drift: innate tendencies interfere w/ conditioning • Preparedness: may acquire certain fear responses easier than others • Taste aversion: acquired after single experience even if illness occurs later • Albert Bandura: found that conditioning may occur vicariously through a observation. • 4 key process in observational learning: 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Reproduction 4. Motivation • Acquisition vs. performance: response can be learned through observation, but organism has to be motivated enough to try the behavior themselves • Models of memory: • Plato: Wax: ID: impressions (deeper= longer remember) • Sherlock Holmes: attic- might throw out something valuable, keeps most important • Library analogy: rooms, sections, shelves • Computer analogy: the technology of the age- stores info by bits • Memory: capacity to remember • All models imply 3 types of brain functions in remembering: • Registration: encoding/decoding • Storage: engram • Retrieval: readout • Register Phase: Encoding: model of sensory communication Decoding: perception • 3 types of capacity: immediate: term of sensory memory, ICONIC memory but different from EIDETIC (photo) memory, short term, long term • Iconic memory: immediate term memory is sensory information processing, partial report, backward masking, sperling experiment • Storage Phase: short term- reverberating circuits, Burns, Donald Hebb • The consolidation hypothesis (Muller and Pilczecker) • Retrograde amnesia: ~`_I~ • Brenda Milner: hippocampus- stores info and its role, Long term Potentiation • Jim McGaugh: role of emotions • Long term: biochemical markers: transfer experiments, protein markers, aplysia research, synaptic sprouts • Early Human memory research: Hermann Ebbinghaus, non sense syllable, first learning and forgetting curves, recall, recognition • Ebbinghaus’ contribution: overlearning (OL-RL): OL=x100= % saved, serial position effect, primacy and recency effects • Memory: Frederick Bartlett, war of the ghosts • Schema: constructive nature of memory • Criminal Justice: Elizabeth Loftus • How to improve your memory: attention, active rehearsal- reverberating circuits, emotional investment, rest period to allow consolidation, over learning, schema building, mnemonic devices • Ratio schedules: response must occur certain # times • Fixed ratio: fixed # responses • Variable ratio: variable # of responses • Interval schedule: certain amount of time must pass • Fixed interval: fixed interval schedule amount of time • Variable interval: variable amount of time • 3 process involved in memory • Encoding: forming a memory code • Storage: maintaining encoded info in memory over time • Retrieval: recovering info from memory stores • Attention: key role all processes of memory • Selective attention: critical everyday functioning • Cocktail party phenomenon: filter out conversations • Divided attention: research suggests that the human brain can effectively handle only one attention-consuming task at a time • Levels of processing Craik and Lockhart: incoming information processed at different levels deeper processing: longer lasting memory codes • Encoding levels: structural: shallow Phonemic: intermediate Semantic: deep • Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding • Visual imagery: creation of visual images to represent words to be remembered- easier for concrete objects • Self Referent encoding: making information personally meaningful • 3 types memory: sensory, short, long • Sensory: preserves info in it’s original sensory form for a brief period of time, fraction of a second, allows sensation of a visual pattern, sound, touch to linger for a short amount of time after sensory stimulus is over • Short term: limited capacity can maintain unrehearsed info for 10-20 secs, can maintain info in short term indefinitely engage in rehearsal, w/o rehearsal info lost in 10-20 secs • Long term: unlimited capacity store can hold info over lengthy periods of time, different from sensory +short • Stored permanently: only forget because cannot retrieve info from LIM • Why we forget: ineffective encoding, decay theory, interference theory, proactive, retroactive • False memory: memory of an event that did not happen, not difficult to create, suggests that memory is more malleable +less reliable than assumed • Hermann Ebbinghaus: studied retention of memories over time, studied his own memory of nonsense syllables (recall +recognition), forgetting curve- forget rapidly, then more slowly over time, primacy effect: tendency to remember words at beginning Recency effects: tendency remember words at end Savings: less time to relearn list of words • Savings Equation: takes less time to relearn list of words original-relearning/original x100= savings % • Amnesia: Retrograde: loss of memories before onset of amnesia • Anterograde: loss of memories after onset of amnesia • Multi memory systems: • Procedural: how to • Declarative: factual • Semantic: knowledge • Episodic: experience • Hippocampus: declarative memory • Prefrontal Cortex: short term memory • Cerebellum: motor memory • Amygdala: emotional memory • Social psychology: study of behavior in the social context, evolutionary perspective, two possibilities: God +Darwin • Sociobiology: roles of genes, genetic communication, makes proteins, make a body, egg first • To survive many creatures were forced to form societies (body limits)- EO Wilson, Richard Dawkins, Desmond Morris • To function in a society it is essential to cooperate and communicate- initially w/ body language, facial expression, later w/ sounds, responding to messages of others +sending messages to others is social psychology • Social perception: impression formation (social schema), stereotyping (age, sex, trade), status, kids, color, music, youth, hobby • Stereotyping: attribution theory, A.Michotte, F. Heider, fundamental attribution error, actor- observer bias, dispositional vs. situational • Attitudes: evaluation of everything, ABC model: affect, behavior, cognition • Attitude: acquisition +change, acquisition through socialization, modeling and reinforcement, change through expert, logic, fear, media • Robert Cialdini: influence is everywhere • Cialdini’s technique: participate and observe compliance professionals getting people to say yes • Strategies to get compliance: reciprocation, commitment, social proof, authority, liking, scarcity, caveat emptor • Social Proof: Solomon Asch, Normative (fear of disapproval), informational (they’re right) • Kitty Genovese: Bystander Apathy • Illusory correlation: people see what they expect to see; overestimate how often they see it • Stereotypes: widely held beliefs that individuals have certain characteristics because they belong to a certain group • Belief: stereotypes can breed prejudice • Discrimination: action on a pre
More Less

Related notes for PSY 205

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit