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PSY 205

• Learning: reward pathway, self stimulation experiment, James Olds • Learning: A change in behavior as a result of experience that endures, it is reversible, non-heritable, non-maturational, any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience • Reward and Punishment: BF Skinner: the environment selects species, traits, behavior • Positive +Negative Reinforcement: any event that increases the rate of responding A) for that event is a positive reinforcement B): for preventing the event from happening • Operant conditioning: shaping: reinforcing by successive approximation, voluntary action • Operant: involves voluntary behavior as result learning such behavior • Behavior Modification: Case of Susie: 4 yrs old: sister’s daughter- cough, likes money • Case of Lisa: 14 yrs old, hands +knees, father ignored her/kicked her • Aperiodic: higher than continuous • Schedules of reinforcement: fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval • Learning by insight: Edward Tolman: latent learning, mental maps, Kohler’s experiment +classical • Classical conditioning: Ivan Pavlov • UCS: unconditioned stimulus –stimulus that evolves on UCR w/o previous conditioning • UCR: unconditioned response- response that’s evoked naturally • CS: conditioned stimulus-previous neutral stimulus through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a CR • CR: conditioned response- learned reaction to a CS that occurs because of previous conditioning • Classical conditioning: Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination, experimental neurosis, emergence of involuntary responses as a result of learning • Fear learning: John Watson, 4 innate fear reactions, loud noise, loss of support, painful stimulus, unusual pattern of stimulation, Little Albert • Trial: pairing of UCS +CS • Acquisition: initial stage in learning • Stimulus contiguity: occurring together in time +space • Edward Thorndike: law of effect- if behavior leads to rewarding consequence, association b/w behavior +consequence will be strengthened • BF Skinner: principle of reinforcement • Shaping: reinforcement of closer approximations of a desired response • Extinction: weakening of a response tendency • Continuous reinforcement: every instance of a response is reinforced • Intermittent (partial) reinforcement: responses are reinforced only some of the time • Partial reinforcement: takes longer extinguish • Fixed ratio: occurs after fixed # responses • Variable ratio: reinforcement occurs after variable # responses • Fixed interval: reinforcement occurs after fixed amount of time • Variable interval: reinforcement occurs after variable amount of time • Reinforcement: goal to increase behavior/response • Punishment: goal to decrease behavior/response • Positive reinforcement: give • Positive punishment: extra • Negative reinforcement: take something away/stopping • Negative punishment: consequence • Primary reinforcer: satisfy biological needs • Secondary reinforce: conditioned reinforcers • Instinctive drift: innate tendencies interfere w/ conditioning • Preparedness: may acquire certain fear responses easier than others • Taste aversion: acquired after single experience even if illness occurs later • Albert Bandura: found that conditioning may occur vicariously through a observation. • 4 key process in observational learning: 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Reproduction 4. Motivation • Acquisition vs. performance: response can be learned through observation, but organism has to be motivated enough to try the behavior themselves • Models of memory: • Plato: Wax: ID: impressions (deeper= longer remember) • Sherlock Holmes: attic- might throw out something valuable, keeps most important • Library analogy: rooms, sections, shelves • Computer analogy: the technology of the age- stores info by bits • Memory: capacity to remember • All models imply 3 types of brain functions in remembering: • Registration: encoding/decoding • Storage: engram • Retrieval: readout • Register Phase: Encoding: model of sensory communication Decoding: perception • 3 types of capacity: immediate: term of sensory memory, ICONIC memory but different from EIDETIC (photo) memory, short term, long term • Iconic memory: immediate term memory is sensory information processing, partial report, backward masking, sperling experiment • Storage Phase: short term- reverberating circuits, Burns, Donald Hebb • The consolidation hypothesis (Muller and Pilczecker) • Retrograde amnesia: ~`_I~ • Brenda Milner: hippocampus- stores info and its role, Long term Potentiation • Jim McGaugh: role of emotions • Long term: biochemical markers: transfer experiments, protein markers, aplysia research, synaptic sprouts • Early Human memory research: Hermann Ebbinghaus, non sense syllable, first learning and forgetting curves, recall, recognition • Ebbinghaus’ contribution: overlearning (OL-RL): OL=x100= % saved, serial position effect, primacy and recency effects • Memory: Frederick Bartlett, war of the ghosts • Schema: constructive nature of memory • Criminal Justice: Elizabeth Loftus • How to improve your memory: attention, active rehearsal- reverberating circuits, emotional investment, rest period to allow consolidation, over learning, schema building, mnemonic devices • Ratio schedules: response must occur certain # times • Fixed ratio: fixed # responses • Variable ratio: variable # of responses • Interval schedule: certain amount of time must pass • Fixed interval: fixed interval schedule amount of time • Variable interval: variable amount of time • 3 process involved in memory • Encoding: forming a memory code • Storage: maintaining encoded info in memory over time • Retrieval: recovering info from memory stores • Attention: key role all processes of memory • Selective attention: critical everyday functioning • Cocktail party phenomenon: filter out conversations • Divided attention: research suggests that the human brain can effectively handle only one attention-consuming task at a time • Levels of processing Craik and Lockhart: incoming information processed at different levels deeper processing: longer lasting memory codes • Encoding levels: structural: shallow Phonemic: intermediate Semantic: deep • Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding • Visual imagery: creation of visual images to represent words to be remembered- easier for concrete objects • Self Referent encoding: making information personally meaningful • 3 types memory: sensory, short, long • Sensory: preserves info in it’s original sensory form for a brief period of time, fraction of a second, allows sensation of a visual pattern, sound, touch to linger for a short amount of time after sensory stimulus is over • Short term: limited capacity can maintain unrehearsed info for 10-20 secs, can maintain info in short term indefinitely engage in rehearsal, w/o rehearsal info lost in 10-20 secs • Long term: unlimited capacity store can hold info over lengthy periods of time, different from sensory +short • Stored permanently: only forget because cannot retrieve info from LIM • Why we forget: ineffective encoding, decay theory, interference theory, proactive, retroactive • False memory: memory of an event that did not happen, not difficult to create, suggests that memory is more malleable +less reliable than assumed • Hermann Ebbinghaus: studied retention of memories over time, studied his own memory of nonsense syllables (recall +recognition), forgetting curve- forget rapidly, then more slowly over time, primacy effect: tendency to remember words at beginning Recency effects: tendency remember words at end Savings: less time to relearn list of words • Savings Equation: takes less time to relearn list of words original-relearning/original x100= savings % • Amnesia: Retrograde: loss of memories before onset of amnesia • Anterograde: loss of memories after onset of amnesia • Multi memory systems: • Procedural: how to • Declarative: factual • Semantic: knowledge • Episodic: experience • Hippocampus: declarative memory • Prefrontal Cortex: short term memory • Cerebellum: motor memory • Amygdala: emotional memory • Social psychology: study of behavior in the social context, evolutionary perspective, two possibilities: God +Darwin • Sociobiology: roles of genes, genetic communication, makes proteins, make a body, egg first • To survive many creatures were forced to form societies (body limits)- EO Wilson, Richard Dawkins, Desmond Morris • To function in a society it is essential to cooperate and communicate- initially w/ body language, facial expression, later w/ sounds, responding to messages of others +sending messages to others is social psychology • Social perception: impression formation (social schema), stereotyping (age, sex, trade), status, kids, color, music, youth, hobby • Stereotyping: attribution theory, A.Michotte, F. Heider, fundamental attribution error, actor- observer bias, dispositional vs. situational • Attitudes: evaluation of everything, ABC model: affect, behavior, cognition • Attitude: acquisition +change, acquisition through socialization, modeling and reinforcement, change through expert, logic, fear, media • Robert Cialdini: influence is everywhere • Cialdini’s technique: participate and observe compliance professionals getting people to say yes • Strategies to get compliance: reciprocation, commitment, social proof, authority, liking, scarcity, caveat emptor • Social Proof: Solomon Asch, Normative (fear of disapproval), informational (they’re right) • Kitty Genovese: Bystander Apathy • Illusory correlation: people see what they expect to see; overestimate how often they see it • Stereotypes: widely held beliefs that individuals have certain characteristics because they belong to a certain group • Belief: stereotypes can breed prejudice • Discrimination: action on a pre
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