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PSY 209 study guide unit 2 copy.pdf

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Syracuse University
PSY 205
Ann Fontane

PSY 209 Study Guide Chpt 14 Stress, Coping and Health Vocab • biopsychosocial model: physical illness the product of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors interacting • health psychology: pyschosocial factors impacting causation, prevention and treatment of illness • stress: circumstances that threaten, or are perceived to threaten, one’s well-being and tax coping abilities • primary appraisal: is an event 1.) irrelevant, 2.) relevant but not threatening, or 3.) stressful • secondary appraisal: evaluation of coping resources and options for handling stress • acute stressors: short duration and clear endpoint • chronic stressors: long duration, no limit • frustration: feeling experienced when pursuit of a goal is twarted • conflict: incompatible motivations/behaviors compete for expression • approach-approach conflict: choice between two attractive goals • avoidance-avoidance conflict: pursuit of goal entails both attractive and negative aspects approach-avoidance conflict: choice between two unattractive options • • life changes: alterations in living circumstance that requires adjustment • pressure: expectations/demands to behave in a certain way • flight-or-fight response: psychosocial reaction in whichANS mobilizes to attack or flee • general adaptation syndrome: Seyle’s 3 stage stress response, alarm, resistance and exhaustion • neurogenesis: formation of new neurons in the brain • coping: active endeavor to master,reduce or tolerate the demands of stress • learned helplessness: passive behavior developed from exposure to unavoidable aversive events • aggression: physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone • catharsis: release of emotional tension • internet addiction: inability to control online use • defense mechanism: anxiety or guilt based unconscious reactions constructive coping: healthful efforts made to deal with stress • • burnout: physical, emotional and mental exhaustion attributed to work-related stress • resilience: successful adaptation to stress, eg trauma, evidenced by lack of negative outcomes • psychosomatic disease: physical ailments with organic basis but also caused partially by factors like emotional distress • TypeApersonality: 1.) strong and competitive, 2.) impatience and time urgency, 3.) anger and hostility • Type B personality: relaxed, patient, easygoing and amiciable • immune response: body’s defensive reaction to bacteria, viral agents or foreign substances • social support: aid and succor provided by members of one’s social network • optimism: tendency to expect good outcomes • acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) weakens/disables the immune system gradually • catastrophic thinking: unrealistically pessimistic appraisals of stress People • Richard Lazarus: appraising stress • Kurt Lewin & Neal Miller: 3 types of conflict Thomas Holmes & Richard Rahe: life changes, SRRS • • Barbara Friedrickson: broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions • Walter Cannon: flight-or-fight response • Shelley Taylor: “tend and befriend” in females, explicit vs implicit social support • Hans Selye: general adaptation syndrome, “diseases of adaptation” • Albert Ellis: “catastrophic thinking,” rational-emotive behavior therapy • Aaron Beck: negative self-talk • Kimberly Young: internet addiction • S Taylor & Johnathon Brown: “positive illusions,” defensive coping • Roy Baumeister: “optimal margin of illusion,” choking under pressure • George Bonanno: resilience studies • Meyer Friedman & Ray Rosenman: coronary risk & TypeApersonalities • Janice Kiecolt-Glaser: stress and depression --> suppressed immune activity in humans Howard Friedman: conscientiousness and physical health & longevity • • Robin Di Matteo: why people procrastinate seeking treatment • Herbert Benson: relaxation response Chapter 13 Social Behavior Vocab • social psychology: how individual’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by others • stereotypes: widely held beliefs about a person based on inclusion in a particular group • illusory correlation: mispreconception resulting from a person’s belief that they have witnessed more confirmations of associations between social traits that reality ingroup:group people belong to and identify with • • outgroup: people not of the group • attributions: inferences drawn about the cause of events, others’and their own behavior • internal attributions: causes of behavior ascribed to personal disposition, traits, abilities and feelings • external attributions: causes of behavior ascribed to situational demands and environment • fundamental attributions error: observers’bias in explaining another’s behavior as due to internal attributes • defensive attribution: blaming a victim for their misfortune in order to prevent feeling themselves victimized • individualism: personal goals over group goals; identity defined by personal attributes • collectivism: group goals before personal; identity • interpersonal attraction: positive feelings towards another • matching hypothesis: males and females select partners that approximately equal their own physical attractiveness • attitudes: orientations of thought according to dimensions of judgment • explicit attitudes: consciously held attitudes that can be readily described • implicit attitudes: covert attitudes expressed in subtle autonomic responses; uncontrollable • source: person who sends a communication • receiver: person to whom a message is sent • message: information transmitted • channel: medium through which a message is sent • cognitive dissonance: psychological state existing when related cognitions are inconsistent • conformity: tendency for people to yield to real or imagined social pressure • normative influence: when people conform to social norms for fear of neg social consequences • obedience: compliance to direct commands, i.e. from an authority figure • social roles: expectations about how people in certain positions should behave • group: two plus individuals who interact and are interdependent • bystander effect: paradoxical social phenomenon where people are less likely to provide needed help when in a group than when on their own • social loafing: reduced effort by individuals in groups as compared to on their own • group polarization: group discussion strengthens a dominant viewpoint and produces a shift to the more extreme decision in that direction • groupthink: members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence over critical thinking in order to make a decision • group cohesiveness: strength of links between group members and the group itself • discrimination: behaving differently to members of a group • foot-in-the-door techniques: agreeing to a small request increases chances of agreement to a larger one • reciprocity norm: people should pay back in kind what they receive from others • lowball technique: committal to an attractive position before revealing hidden costs People • Cohen: perceptions consistent with stereotypes • Krebs & Denton: ingroup/outgroup stereotypes • Fritz Heider: internal attributions • Bernard Weiner: stable-unstable dimension to attributions • Gilbert & Malone: observers overlook situational pressures • Harry Triandis: individualism vs collectivism • Donn Bryne: attitude alignment • Elaine HAtfield & Ellen Berscheid: passionate and compassionate love • Cindy Hazan & Phillip Shaver: attachment relationships; secure, anxious-preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant and fearful-avoidant • David Buss: worldwide properties in mate selection • Richard La Piere: prejudice does not have to translate into behavior • D.S. Wallace: 0.41 correlation between behavior and attitude • Anthony Pratkanis & ElliotAronson: “age of propaganda” • Robert Zajonc: mere exposure effect • Leon Festinger & J. Merrill Carlsmith: dissonance theory, counter-attitdual behavior and cognitive dissonance • Aronson & Mills: effort justification Richard Perry & John Cacioppo: elaboration likelihood method; central & peripheral roots • • SolomonAsch: conformity and social pressure, group size and unanimity • Stanley Milgram: shock test and obedience • Jerry Burger: partial replication of Milgram 2009, rates remain consisten • Phillip Zimbardo: Standford Prison Simulation • Hackman & Katz: groups and technology • John Darley & Bibb Latané: bystander effect;
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