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PSY 315-Exam 4 Study Guide

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PSY 315

Psychology Exam 4mechanism of action amphetaminesMechanisms oWork on Catecholamines DA and NE Produce formidable adrenergic response at both peripheral and central nervous synapsesRelease newlysynthesizes catecholaminesRelease larger quantities of catecholaminesResemble NEfalse neurotransmitterBlock catecholamine reuptake Inhibits MAO oStrong effect on 5HT neuronsoDecreased tryptophan hydroxylase activity at certain areaimpaired synthesis of 5HTCaffinemechanism of actionBlock adenosine receptors naturally occurring depressant in the body2Increase cell metabolismRelease Ca release increase musle contractionRelease NA Efeel betterAdenosine antagonism peristalsisIts how food getsdown your throatthrough your stomachthrough your small intestine thenthrough your large intestineto its final destination the rectum Peristalsis or peristaltic action is what moves food through your entire digestive tractWhen things go wrong with peristalsis you can end up with bowel cramps constipation diarrhea abdominal pain etc and other things like GERDProblemsCaffeine alcohol and cigarette smoking are all suspected of causing problems with peristalsisSome people have more nerve endings or pain receptors in their intestines which can cause spasms in response to food irritantsCaffeine is a stimulant and bowel irritant which can speed things up to the point of diarrhea Alcohol can mess things up too possibly do to the mind gut connection mentioned beloweffects of opiates Psychology Exam 4Effects on CNS euphoria and analgesiaoMedulla inhibits respiration center raise CO2 thresholdInhibits vasomotor center hypotensionStimulates CTZ depress emetic center oHypothalamusReset the bodys themostatRelease ADHInhibits release ACTHDepress afferent input oLimbicRaise threshold on amygdaleoCortexLower evoked potential slowing EEG reduce REMEffects on GI constipationoIncrease intestinal contractions but interferes with peristalsisto relief diarrhea and dysenteryBehavioral EffectoAnalgesia reliefoSedation quietly happy oEuphoria5 Clinical ApplicationAnalgesia diarrhea and cough opiatesPsychodynamicsPoorly absorbed from GI tractIt is used through inhalationPrepared as morphine sulfate Optimal dose for analgesia is 515 mg 10 mg is the standard effective dose 2 Opiate ReceptorsEnkaphalin endogenous opiate made in the brainEndorphin endogenous opiate that contains the enkephalin molecules in the structural sequence 3 Mechanisms of action Enhances 5HT synthesis so reserpine could impair morphine effect Prevents release of NE at postganglion sympathetic site Incorporated into cell function affect cell metabolism Inhibition of protein synthesis with antibiotics tolerance4 Pharmacological EffectsIs a prototype of the opiatesEffects on CNS euphoria and analgesiaoMedulla
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