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PSY Exam #3 Notes.docx

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Syracuse University
PSY 336

Brain and Cognitive Development 1) Three Broad Ways to View Intelligence a) Qualitative developmental process i) Emphasis on Nature of thought (1) How we think (2) No emphasis on standardized test (3) Changes of thinking from child to adult ii) Piaget (1) Individuals actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of development (2) Sensorimotor: connects senses with physical world (3) Preoperational: connects words with symbols (4) Concrete Operational: can apply logic to specific or concrete examples (5) Formal Operational: can think more abstractly, idealistically, and logically (adolescence) iii) Vygotsky (1) Individuals actively construct knowledge (2) Culture and social interaction guide cognitive development b) Information Processing View i) How we take in, store and retrieve information (1) Learned strategy (no stages) (2) Attention (a) Dividing attention doesn’t work (3) Memory (4) Other cognitive processes c) Psychometric i) Tied to numbers (IQ) ii) Standardized tests iii) Emphasis on individual differences (1) Differences in IQ iv) Intelligence is problem solving ability d) Three views are complimentary i) Like a flip of a coin (1) Heads: cognitive development-interpret questions (2) Tails: psychometric-looking for the answer (3) Side: information processing-manipulating the information (4) All three are part of intelligence like all three sides are part of a coin ii) Each tells us something about intelligence iii) What does each tell us about adolescence? 2) QualitativeApproach a) Think differently than in childhood b) Piaget i) 3 Kids and became fascinated with them ii) Worked with Binet (creator of IQ Test) iii) Tried to figure out why his kids answered questions wrong on IQ test c) Intelligence is a process i) Focus on how intelligence works ii) Intelligence changes qualitatively with development iii) Children/adolescents think differently iv) Develop in stages (1) Change from state to stage is qualitative (2) Reflect differences in modes of thinking v) Stage Theory (1) Age doesn’t define stage (2) Everybody goes through stages in same order (3) Doesn’t matter what pace you go through stages because everybody goes through them (4) Stages are like a ramp (5) Intelligence evolves (6) Discontinuity are the different stages (transitions) (7) Continuities are thinking similarly within the stages (a) Always think the same way within the stage (b) New stage, new way of thinking (discontinuity) d) Piaget’s Theory i) Function produces structure which allows content ii) Function (1) Assimilation: to take information in (2) Accommodation: to adjust the information (3) Take info in and adjust it (assimilate and accommodate) (4) View of world changes as we take in info (5) Age invariant (doesn’t change with age) (6) Doesn’t refer to classroom learning (7) Create object permanence (8) Create rules about how world works iii) Structure changes with age (1) Change in structure IS cognitive development (2) Structures develop gradually (3) Allows us to behave a certain way iv) Content is behavior (1) Changes with Development (2) Competence: what you are capable (3) Performance: what you do v) Motivation (1) Equilibrium vs. disequilibrium (a) Encouraged by disequilibrium (b) Mismatch between environmental demand and cognitive competence (c) Disequilibrium (i) If a child has an experience that doesn’t match its skills, it becomes motivated to figure out why (ii) Child’s cognitive skills can’t handle certain concepts vi) Four Stages (age doesn’t define step) (1) Infancy (a) Understand through sensorimotor (b) Reflexes are intentional behavior (c) Ends when child develops language (2) Preoperational (pre-logical) (a) Logic means nothing (b) Using symbols to represent other things (c) View life from only their point of view (d) “If I can’t see you, you can’t see me” (e) Centering: focusing on one problem at a time and forgetting everything else (f) Egocentrism: Seeing something from only your view (g) Reversibility: Mentally reversing a task (h) Conservation: Understanding change of shape can still be same size (3) Concrete Operational (7-11 years) (a) Logical reasoning about real things (b) More familiar with different ways of thinking (4) Formal Operational (11 years) (a) Abstract logical reasoning (b) Brain is almost fully developed (c) Myelin may relate to abstract thinking e) Adolescents: Formal Operational thinking (1) Abstract (formal) and logical (operational) (2) Hypothetical-deductive (if-then thinking) (3) See possible as well as real (what could be as well as what is) (a) Possible doesn’t really exist f) What does this tell us about adolescent development? i) Egocentrism (1) Only see things through our perspective (2) Get away from this during formal operational (3) Confuse objective vs. suspective aspects of reality (a) Imaginary audience (b) Feeling guilty (everybody knows) (c) Mental audience (4) Confusion of objective and suspective leads to personal fable (a) Things can’t happen to me if I don’t let it (b) Risky behavior (bad things don’t happen to me) (5) Risky Behavior (a) Rational thinking occurs in prefrontal cortex, which isn’t fully developed (b) Hence they make poor decisions (c) Adult focuses on end results (d) Adolescent thinks about process (6) Relations with parents (a) Late elementary school, only tell parents minimal (b) Argue logically (7) Identity Crisis (a) Have one because we can (b) Identity (i) Set of values that guides behavior (c) Period of questioning values (d) Project yourself into the future (e) Being able to see what’s possible (8) Evaluating Piaget’s Theory (a) Children and adolescents are active in their learning (b) Not passive (c) Cognitive vs. Performance (9) Critics (a) Thinking of intelligence as incomplete (i) Post formal thought (problem recognition) (ii) Recognize when problems exist (iii) Being able to fix problem (b) Wisdom (i) Based on experience (c) Vergatzky (i) Thought of social learning (ii) Group work important (iii) Children construct knowledge from social interaction (iv)Kids Teach each other (v) Zoned-proximal development 1. Range of knowledge that you can learn 2. Ranges between what you know by yourself and the knowledge of others 3) Information Processing (THINKING) a) Process i) Input through sensory ii) Brain process sensory iii) Output iv) Works like a computer, but the brain works faster v) Limited in the amount of information vi) Gets better at encoding/retrieving information vii)Use strategies like chunking viii) Build new information based on prior experience b) Attention i) Focused mental effort ii) Must be selective for encoding to occur iii) Splitting attention is detrimental (1) Flipping between events c) Memory (Metamemory) i) Remember more quantitative change ii) Short Term (1) Memory that lasts long enough to remember it (2) Can hold 7 bits of information (3) Limited space (4) Improves with age iii) Working Memory (1) Brings information in and does something with it (2) Rehearsal iv) Long Term Memory (1) Permanent (2) Large capacity (3) Can improve capacity with strategies such as chunking (4) Strategies represent qualitative change (5) Both qualitative and quantitative changes can occur v) Process is non-developmental (1) Kids, adolescents, and adults all have this memory (2) Works the same in each stage d) Decision Making i) Improves with age ii) Due to practice iii) Through experience you get better decision making skills e) Reasoning i) Improves in adolescence ii) Involves logical thinking f) Critical thinking i) Children are not good at it ii) Reflects thinking and evaluating evidence iii) Improves through adolescence g) Creative thinking i) Divergent Thinking (1) Coming up with multiple solutions (2) Lots of possibilities (3) Most of the creative ideas come up after all of the “common” thoughts (4) Brainstorming ii) Convergent (1) Coming up with the best (1) correct answer h) Expertise i) Think of things in your field that others who aren’t in your field can’t ii) Acquired information that allows you to think about what others can’t i) Metacognition i) Knowing about knowing and thinking ii) Monitoring your own behavior and performance iii) By knowing this you can adjust behavior 4) Psychometric/Intelligence View a) Intelligence is an individual variable b) Intelligence is problem solving ability c) Ability to learn from every day experience i) How quickly you learn at school d) Intelligence Tests i) BasicAssumptions (1) Can be measured by standardized test (2) Intelligence is normatively distributed among population ii) Real IQ curve (1) Bump at the lower end iii) Binet Test (1) Predicts school performance (2) Used to predict Special Ed. st (3) 1 standardized test to measure individual differences (characters in which we all differ) (4) Lois Turman studied with Binet (5) Standford-Binet current test (a) IQ=Mental age/Chronological age*100% (b) MAis measure of distance (c) CAis measure of time (d) IQ is a measure of rate (e) IQ is defined as the rate of acquisition of presumably universally taught information (i.e. How quickly do you learn what everyone is taught) iv) Wechsler Scale (1) Measures verbal and performance (2) Crystallized Intelligence (a) Intelligence that is taught (3) Fluid Intelligence (a) Relation perceiving (b) Not taught (c) How quickly you see it in Central nervous system relation (d) Don’t see relation as quickly as we used to (decreases with age) (e) People don’t get stupid, they just think slower e) Types of Intelligence i) Spearman’s “g” (1) General intelligence ii) Sternberg’s 3 types (1) Analytical (2) Creative (3) Practical iii) Gardner’s 8 (9) types f) Controversy and issues with Intelligence i) Nature vs. Nurture (1) Mostly inherited (2) 70% biological ii) Ethnicity and Culture (1) Tend to side with culture iii) How are IQ tests used? (1) Bad for labeling kids (2) Can be used to identify kids who are special need iv) We are getting smarter (Flynn Effect) (1) Test is constantly being changed to adjust to this idea 5) Intelligence andAdolescence a) Cognitive DevelopmentApproach i) Assumes we change how we think ii) Helps explain aspects of development b) Psychometric and Information ProcessingApproach i) Non-developmental ii) Emphasize sameness iii) Don’t tell us anything unique about adolescence 6) The Self and Identity a) Emphasize the study of self views during adolescence i) Physical change may cause changes in self views (1) New body image (2) Others change reactions to your self (3) Changing competencies and abilities relate to culturally defined roles- worker (a) Spilling milk because we don’t know how long our arm is b) Cognitive changes i) Relate to how we view ourselves ii) Compare self to others c) Long history of interest in self i) Freud (1) Sex drive is the first drive since infancy that involves self (2) Self is changing (3) Psychoanalytic theory (a) Development is primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion (4) 5 psychosexual stages (a) Oral: obsessed with mouth (b) Anal: Focus on anus (c) Phallic: focus on genitals (d) Latency: focus on social and intellectual skills (e) Genital: focus on sexual pleasure (5) Unconscious (a) Id: instincts (b) Ego: deals with demand of reality (c) Superego: moral branch of personality (6) Theories overemphasis on sexual insights ii) Hall (1) Storm and Stress (2) Compare self to others iii) Erikson (1) Identity crisis (2) iv) Key is to integrate something new into the self d) Multiple self views i) The 20 statements test (I am...) (1) Self-concept dimensions on which we view self (self concept) ii) With age, we provide more abstract answers (1) Psychological construents increases (2) Behavioral comparisons decreases iii) Adolescents can ask “Who am I” and answer in more concrete terms iv) Each dimension relates to the overall self-esteem v) Baseline Self-esteem (1) Rate 1-5 as you generally feel (2) How you generally view yourself (3) Changes slowly (decreases when changing schools) (4) Changes over lifespan (a) Decreases during childhood (b) Declines further during adolescence (c) Guys typically have a higher baseline than girls vi) Barometric Self-esteem (1) Rate 1-5 how you feel right now (2) Changes moment to moment vii)Possible selves (1) What we most want to be or what we most fear (2) Motivations (3) Guide our behavior (4) If you reach a desired self, possible selves change viii) Statements of values (1) Identity guides behavior (2) Identity (a) Set of values that guide behavior (b) Changes with life experiences e) Characters of self i) Differentiation ii) Rea/ideal; true/false iii) Self consciousness iv) Self integration f) Self is complicated i) There is no one way of looking at self 7) All are Means of Self Understanding a) Means of knowing self-change with development b) Adolescents see self in more abstract terms than children c) Damon/Hart and their four levels of self understanding i) Early Childhood (1) Separate categories (2) Each child would describe a story (3) What is happening now is self (4) Self changes with change in immediate experience ii) Middle/Late Childhood (1) Relate to others (2) Normative: compare self to others iii) EarlyAdolescence (1) Social Interaction (2) Fitting self into social world iv) LateAdolescence (1) Self has set of beliefs (2) Self exists in a system of beliefs v) Each level involves new view, but old view are not lost 8) Self Views and Cognitive Development a) Young Child (Pre Operational Stage) i) Immediate experiences ii) No references to inner psychological state b) Concrete operational child i) Thinks in ways of traits ii) Trait (1) One step removed from behavior iii) Can group things logically c) Formal operational i) Look at superior traits ii) Integrate behavior with trait and come up with abstract characteristics d) Cognitive development dictates how we view self 9) Identity Development a) Erik Erikson i) Psychotherapist who trained with Freud ii) Human behavior is motivated by social nature iii) Developed life-span psychosocial development (1) See p. 29 iv) Identity vs. Identity diffusion (1) Need to create set of values that were the core of how we behave v) Adolescence is the time of finding your identity vi) Didn’t describe how identity is developed b) James Marcia i) Described how identity crisis progressed ii) Described how we adopt an identity iii) Focused on process of identity formation iv) Face crisis (1) Time of information gathering (2) Time of thinking about the crisis (3) Think about values (4) Weigh alternatives v) Make commitment in areas of politics, religion vocation (1) Even after we adopt the set of values the values can still change (2) After making the commitment something causes you to rethink and go back to “facing the crisis” (3) New experiences can cause us to rethink c) Erikson’s 3 areas of focus i) Politics reflects social philosophy of life (1) What are your views about the government and the people it governs (2) What is your view on the importance/role of the government ii) Religion reflects personal philosophy of life (1) Reflects moral values (2) Notions of rights and wrongs (3) Not what your specific religion is, but the moral beliefs (4) Your feelings towards moral issues iii) Vocation reflects personality (1) Important in industrialized societies (2) Shows what you are and what you will be (3) Vocation is not chosen randomly chos
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