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PSY 393 Final: EXAM 4 REVIEW

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PSY 393

PSYCHOLOGY 393 EXAM IV REVIEW ✓ What positions do Bandura, Dollard and Miller, and Skinner hold on the necessity of cognition for effective reinforcement? Bandura: Causal Cognitions - Mental events that can elicit, reinforce or punish behavior - External events represented symbolically o Verbal and imaginal representations guide future events Nature of Reinforcement - Reinforcement must be consciously perceived to be effective - Conscious expectations develop: o reinforcement o punishment - Personal learning history shapes expectations o linking contexts (situational stimuli) o leading to punishment or reinforcement - Behavior largely regulated by anticipated outcomes Dollard and Miller: Reinforcement • Drive Reduction: most important type of reinforcement • Reinforcement typically exerts influence outside of awareness Drive Reduction • Two Types of Stimuli: – Motivational (e.g., hunger or thirst) – Discriminative signals or cues • Drive reducing responses are likely to recur when the cues associated with drive are present Stimulus Response Theory (S-R) • Cues and Responses more remote in time are not reinforced as strongly as stimuli near the reinforcer of the S-R chain • Learning = strengthening or weakening of S-R Links – Learning may occur via: • Reinforcement • Punishment • imitation (Social Learning) • Response Occurrence may depend on: 1 – the intensity or quality of a single stimulus – a pattern of cues – the behavior being motivated by more than one drive – the strength of the drive Skinner: Bandura’s Criticisms of Skinner: • Excessive environmental emphasis o People are controlled by the environment o Yet, people are encouraged to better society through behavioral engineering o Contradiction: People cannot control the omnipotent environment that controls them ✓ Know Skinner’s position of environmental control of operant behavior. • Organism emits a response to operate on the environment. • Environmental consequence strengthens or weakens the response. • Operant= response learned through operant conditioning. Bandura’s Criticisms of Skinner: • Excessive environmental emphasis o People are controlled by the environment o Yet, people are encouraged to better society through behavioral engineering o Contradiction: People cannot control the omnipotent environment that controls them ✓ Study how operant conditioning happens and the concepts of operant generalization, operant extinction, discriminative stimuli (S ), operant punishment, and operant reinforcement. Antecedent Stimulus Control • Stimuli (S ) associated with the consequence cue the organism in terms of: o the responses to be emitted for particular situations o likely consequences given particular situations • Learned through respondent conditioning • Discrimination o Learning to tell the difference between different stimuli, responding only to the conditioned stimulus and not to similar stimuli Operant Generalization • Conditioned responses can occur in response to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimuli to the conditioned stimulus Operant Extinction • When the pairing of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus stops • Gradual decrease in the response to the conditioned stimulus 2 • Weakening Consequences o Extinction: non-delivery of consequence leads of an eventual decreased likelihood of the operant occurrence Operant Punishment • Aversive consequence decreases likelihood of the future occurrence of the operant Operant Reinforcement • Positive Reinforcement= responses emitted to obtain more of the consequence • Negative Reinforcement= responses emitted to avoid delivery of the consequence ✓ According to Bandura, what is the cause of psychopathology? Psychopathology = mental or behavioral disorder; the scientific study of mental disorders - “…considered present when a behavior pattern or emotional state causes an individual clinically significant distress, dysfunction, or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning or is widely deviant from social or cultural norms.” Per Bandura, Psychopathology is caused by: - A low degree of self-efficacy Perceived Self-Efficacy • Due to our learning history, we learn: – beliefs or convictions about out ability to execute behaviors required to outcomes – to perceive our effectiveness at coping with environmental demands • The above expectancies relate to self-efficacy • Self-efficacy is situational • Faulty internalization of standards of reinforcement and punishment – can lead to a distortion of perceived self-efficacy – which, in turn, promotes faulty self-regulation – due to problems with self-reinforcement • Mental Health is equated with a high degree of self-efficacy • Low Self-efficacy is associated with avoidance of challenge and stress by: – expending minimum effort, giving up early – engaging in self-debilitating criticism – These characteristics decrease the likelihood of: • experiencing success and mastery • internalization of corrective feedback • enhancement of self-efficacy ✓ Review Mischel’s views on traits and the consistency of behavior across situations. In terms of his CAPS framework, should we attempt to predict consistency or attempt to predict the patterns of variability across situations? Consistency Paradox • People see themselves as acting consistently across situations • However, cross-situational correlations are usually quite low r=.13 3 CAPS • All of the above factors contribute to: o mediational units within our nervous system ▪ that interact with each other ▪ that modulate each other ▪ and, hence, affect behavior • Assumes that the cognitive and affective substrates of overt behavior reflect: o The individual’s total experience: ▪ Including cognitive social learning history • Linked to such biological foundations as genetic history and temperament • How the person construes situational contexts ▪ Involves multiple levels of information processing • Differing in levels awareness • Differing in automaticity • Mischel believes that people differ o in the chronic accessibility or activation levels o of the particular mental representations available o for the behavioral transactions with the world ✓ According to Dollard and Miller, what is the “hall mark” of neurosis? Can labeling be distorted, and what is the difference between an unconscious versus conscious cue- producing response? Approach-Avoidance Conflict • Involves a single goal with both desirable and undesirable qualities. • Although motivated to approach, movement towards the goal induces an aversive stimulation • Theoretically, the avoidance tendency strength increases more rapidly than the approach tendency strength. • Hallmark of neurotic misery – Drive reduction is sacrificed for fear reduction – Drive remains unfulfilled and continues to press for fulfillment – At an unconscious level, these conflicts contribute to neurosis Labeling  Development of a cue-producing response by attaching verbal symbols to some person, event, stimulus, response, or stimulus-response chain.  Accurate and Adaptive Labeling can lead to the formulation of cognitive strategies that enable us to plan for future events and cope with current problems. 4  Distorted Labeling can induce maladaptive behavior resulting from irrational and illogical cue-producing responses.  Personality disturbances result from deficiencies and impairments in such higher mental processes as labeling. ✓ Go over Mischel’s concepts related to Encodings, Expectancies and Beliefs, Affects, Goals and Subjective Stimulus values, and Self-Regulatory Systems and how these variables relate to “If >>>Then” relationships. Encodings: • Categories (constructs) for the self, people, events and situations (external and internal) o Personal constructs relate to units of categorizing yourself and others o Prototypes are typical examples of constructs Expectancies and Beliefs: • the social world and world in general (stimulus outcome expectancies) • outcomes for behavior in particular situations (behavior outcome expectancies) • personal self-efficacy Affects • Feelings, emotions, and affective responses (including physiological reactions) Goals and Subjective Stimulus values • Desired outcomes and affective states • Aversive outcomes and affective states • Goals, values, and life projects Self-Regulatory Systems • Competencies and Self-Regulatory systems and Plans: namely o Potential behaviors and scripts to produce ▪ plans and strategies for • organizing action • affecting outcomes • regulating behavior and internal states ✓ Review Mischel’s criticism of aggregation. Aggregation: the Trait Solution to Temporal Instability • Some personality theorists advocate: o “aggregating” scores (summing across situations) ▪ to increase reliability of trait assessment • Drawbacks: o Variance = a source of error to be averaged across o Ignores variabil
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