SOM Study Guide 2.doc

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Syracuse University
School of Management
SOM 122

SOM Study Guide 2 Chapter 10 – Managing Teams Work Teams – small number of people with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for pursuing a common purpose, achieving performance goals, and improving independent work processes • Advantages o Customer satisfaction o Product and service quality o Job satisfaction  Cross-training – training team members to do all or most of the jobs performed by the other team members • Disadvantages o Initially high turnover o Group decision making  Groupthink  Minority domination o Social loafing – when workers withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work Use teams when: • There is a clear, engaging purpose for using it • Job cant be done unless people work together • Rewards can be provided for teamwork and team performance Autonomy – the degree with which workers have the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish their jobs Kinds of Teams: • Traditional work group – a group composed of two or more people who work together to achieve a shared goal o Workers are responsible for doing the work but don’t have direct control over their work  report to managers • Employee involvement teams – team that provides advice or makes suggestions to management concerning specific issues BUT don’t have authority to make decisions (membership voluntary but usually selected for expertise) • Semi-autonomous group – group that has the authority to make decisions and solve problems related to the major tasks of producing a product or service o Members cross-trained and receive relative information • Self-managing teams – manages and controls all of the major tasks of producing a product or service • Self-designing teams – characteristics of self-managing team but also control team design, work tasks, and team membership • Cross-functional teams – a team composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization • Virtual team – composed of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who use telecommunication and information technologies to accomplish an organization task • Project team – created to complete specific, one-time projects or tasks within a limited time Managing Work Teams • Norms – informally agreed on standards that regulate team behavior • Cohesiveness – the extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain in it • Team size – between 6-9 and members Team Conflict • Cognitive – improvements in team performance o Disagree because of different experiences and expertise  different views and solutions  Willingness to examine, compare, and reconcile differences to produces the best possible solution • Affective – decreases in team performance o Results in hostility, anger, resentment, distrust, cynicism, and apathy o Lowers satisfaction of team members, may lead to hostility between coworkers, and decrease cohesiveness Ways to have a good fight! – work with more information, develop multiple alternatives, and establish common goals, inject humor in workplace, maintain a balance of power by involving as many people as possible in the decision process, and resolve issues without forcing consensus  team leader should make final choice Stages of Team Development – • Forming – meet each other, form initial impressions and begin to establish team norms • Storming – characterized by conflict, and disagreement, in which team members disagree over what the team should do and how they should do it • Norming – team members begin to settle into their roles, group cohesion grows and positive team norms develop • Performing – performance improves because the team has matured into an effective, fully functioning team Chapter 12: Diversity Diversity- a variety of demographic, cultural, and personal differences among an organization’s employees and customers Affirmative action ≠ diversity Affirmative action- purposeful steps taken by an organization to create employment opportunities for minorities and women - More narrowly focused on demographics such as sex and race - Policy for actively creating diversity - Does not guarantee diversity - Required by law for private employers with 50 or more employees - Purpose is to compensate for past discrimination Surface-level diversity- differences such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and physical disabilities that are observable, typically unchangeable, and easy to measure - Age discrimination - Sex discrimination – glass ceiling is the invvisble barriers that prevents women and minorities from advancing to the top jobs - Racial and ethnic discrimination - Disability discrimination – better safety records and no more likely to be absent or quit their jobs Deep-level diversity- difference such as personality and attitudes that are communicated through verbal and nonverbal behaviors and are learned only through extended interaction with others Disposition – tendency to respond to situations and events in a predetermined manner - Personality dimensions o Extraversion – active, assertive, socialable and energized by others o Emotional stability – not angry, depressed, emotional, insecure o Agreeableness – cooperative, polite, flexible, forgiving, trusting o Conscientiousness – organized, hard-working, responsible, and achievement oriented o Openness to experience – curious, broad-minded, open to new experiences Social integration- the degree to which group members are psychologically attracted to working with each other to accomplish a common objective Managing Diversity - Diversity Paradigms o Discrimination and fairness: having a demographically representative work force  Equal opportunity  Fair treatment  Surface-level diversity o Access and legitimacy: having demographic differences inside the company match those of key customers and stakeholders  Acceptance and celebration of differences  Diversity matches the diversity found among primary stakeholders  Surface-level diversity  Business growth o Learning and effectiveness  Integrating deep-level diversity differences  Achieving organizational plurality: all members are empowered to contribute & the individuality of each member is respected • Values common ground • Makes distinction between individual and group differences • Less likely to lead to conflict • The value of being different “togetherness” - Diversity Principles o Carefully and faithfully follow and enforce federal and state laws regarding equal opportunity employment o Treat group differences as important but not special o Find the common ground o Tailor opportunities to individuals, not groups o Solicit negative as well as positive feedback o Set high but realistic goals “we” is everyone! - Diversity Training and Practices o Awareness training  Raise awareness of diversity issues and challenge stereotypes o Skills-based training  Teaches employees the practical skills they need for managing a diverse work force such as flexibility and adaptability, negotiation, problem solving, and conflict resolution o Diversity audits & pairing – special kind of mentoring Chapter 4 – Ethics and Social Responses • Workplace Deviance – unethical behavior that violates organizational norms about right and wrong o Production Deviance – leaving early, long work breaks, working slowly, and wasting resources o Property Deviance – sabotaging, stealing, damaging equipment or products and overcharging for services and pocketing the differences  Employee Shrinkage – theft of company merchandise by employees • “Sweethearting” and “dumpster diving” o Political Deviance – decions based of favoritism rather than performance, spreading rumors about coworkers, and blaming others for mistakes they didn’t make o Personal Aggresion – sexual harrassment, verbal abuse, stealing from coworkers, and personally threatening coworkers • 38 levels of offenses o Base fine o Encourage ethical behavior before the illegal activity occurs o Level 38 = $72.5 million base fine o Culpability scores range from .05-4.0  Total fine is computed by multiplying the base fine by the culpability score 6 Factors of Ethical Intensity  Magnitude of consequences – total harm or benefit derived from the ethical decision o More people harmed or affected the higher this is  Social consensus – agreement if it is bad or good  Probability of effect – chance that something will happen and then result in harm to others  Temporal immediacy – the time between an act and the consequences the act produces o Stronger if a manager has to lay off workers next week as opposed to months from now  Proximity of effect – the social, psychological, cultural, or physical distance of a decision maker from those affected by his or her decisions  Concentration of effect – how much an act affects the average person **** Managers are much more likely to view decisions as ethical when the magnitude of consequences (TOTAL HARM) is high and there is a social consensus (AGREEMENT) that a behavior or action as bad. Kohlberg’s 3 phases of Moral Development 1. Pre-conventional Level of Moral Development - people decide based on selfish reasons 2. Conventional Level – make decisions that conform to societal expectations (do what others do) 3. Post-conventional Level – use internalized ethical principles to solve ethical dillemas Larue Homer Ethical Decision Making 1. Long-term self-interest – never take any action that is not in your or your organizations long-term self-interest 2. Personal Virtue – never do anything that is not honest, open, and truthful and that you would not be glad to see reported nationally 3. Religious injunctions 0 you should never take an action that is unkind or that harms a sense of community 4. Government requirements – law represe
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