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SPM 205 Midterm: SPM Exam 1

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Syracuse University
Sport Management
SPM 205

SPM EXAM 1 Study Guide 1. Sport, Sport Management, and the Sport Industry ● Definitions of sport (compare and acknowledge the limitations of each definition) ● Shanks definition:​ A source of diversion or physical activity engaged in for pleasure ● Sport is fun and enjoyable but can also be work, business, employment ● VanderZwaag definition: ​Sport is a competitive physical activity, utilizing specialized equipment and facilities, with unique dimensions of time and space, in which the quest of records is of high significance” ● Pitts, Fielding and MIller: “Sport is any activity, experience or business enterprise focused on fitness, recreation, athletics or leisure ● Definitions of sport ○ Does NOT have to be competitive or need specialized equipment or rules ● It's a variety of physical activities and associated business endeavors ● Types and characteristics of sport Loys Charactersitic of Sport 1.​ ​Be play-like in nature 2.​ ​Involve some element of competition 3.​ ​Be based on physical prowess; 4.​ ​Involve skill, strategy and chance; 5.​ ​And, Have an uncertain outcome. ● Sport vs. sports ● SPORTS:​ Implies a collection of separate activities such as golf, baseball, hockey, bball, etc ● SPORT:​ Is an all encompassing concept. A collective noun that includes all sporting activities . ● Magnitude and different sectors of sport industry ○ Business Administration ○ Management Functions ■ (ie: planning, organizing, directing, and controlling) ○ ​Accounting ○ Finance ○ Sales ○ Marketing ○ Law ○ Communication ○ Consumer Entertainment ​} ​Spectator Industry ○ Analytics ● Sport is seven times larger than the movie industry ● ​Sport is more than twice the size of the U.S. auto industry. ● ​Collectively, the sport industry is bigger than all public utilites combined. ● Sport revenue is greater than the entire U.S. agriculture industry. * 2015 Revenue of Sport Industry: $422 Billion ● Definition of sport management ○ The study of all people, activities, organizations, and businesses involved in producing, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any sport product or service. ● Passionate consumers – Why and How? ● Key of sport manager is to: Keep customers feeling passionate about sport ● WHY: So that consumer passion can DRIVE SALES TO RETAIL SPONSORS and increase incremental business income associated with sport products. ● How: ​By fufilling the customer’s NEEDS and keeping customers Satisfied with the sporting experience ● ● Types of sport consumers 4 Types of Sport consumers 1) Spectators: observe sport 2) Participants: take part in sporting activities 3) Sponsors: who exchange money or product for the right to be associated with a sporting event 4) Media: agencies of mass communication that cover sporting events, sports and personalities and products ● Various management skills required in sport management Planning​ – administrator, coach (developing & implementing goals, strategies, policies to efficient and effective results) Organizing​ – tournament director, facilities manager (arranging resources such as personnel and financials; 'me, space & information) Directing ​– AD, GM, or CEO (influencing subordinates, peers and supervisors to produce best results Communicating ​– SID, PR (ability to interact with consultuents and stakeholders effec-vely and u-lize technology ) Coordinating​ – Event manager (balancing multiple tasks simultaneously) Controlling​ – game officials, league administrator/ commissioner, players, sports lawyers (insure people/ projects are on task) Budgeting ​– business manager, CFO (fiscal management) ​Leading ​– marketing director (motivating employees, volunteers) Evaluating​ scouts, academic counselor (Did results meet goals & objectives?) ● 2. History of Sport Management ● Sport in ancient Greece, Rome, medieval, and industrial revolution ages ● Originated with Ancient greeks ● Two disciplines: academic and professional ● Growing field of study to train and prepare individuals for careers ● When did it all start? ● BCE 6000 Libya- swimming ● BCE 2800- Middle east wrestling ● BC 1200 in Mesoamerica ● BCE 2950 BCE 332 in Egypt wrestling ● Ancient Greek olympics ○ Earliest record of athletic competition ○ Stade race, wrestling, boxing ● Roman vs. modern sport: ○ Circus maximus ● Roman Era ○ Influenced by Greeks ○ Sport Management ■ Different seating classes, ticket system, flow and management, ushers, athlete management, concessions, travel agency ● Middle Age ○ Olympic games stopped by Theodosius ○ Church restricted sport (drinking and other issues) ○ Lack of sport facilities ● Archery, hunting, folk football ● Industrial revolution and sport ○ Restricted lifted in 19th century ○ Allowed more past time ● English Club System: Sports and the Community (Thoroughbred Racing, The Jockey Club) as well as the contributions to today’s sports model (read slide and text book) ● The english club system ○ England was the birthplace of modern port and sport management ○ 18th century: english aristocracy developed exclusive sport clubs with limited membership ○ 19th century: continued club evolution with standard set of rules, settling and organized schedules ○ Racing, jockey club ● Thoroughbred Racing: ○ One of the first sports transformed by the club management system ○ Began as local events organized by local breeders ○ Volunteer system of management ○ Wealthy men controlled the races but it was strictly for entertainment not financial reasons ○ A more systemized system was needed BECASUE 2 REASONS ■ Increasing complexity of gambling ■ Desire of owners to bred and train the fastest horses in england ● The Jockey club ○ Est. 1750 ○ Need for strong national governing body to establish rules and standards to create a mechanism for resolving disputes, the jockey club from newmarket emerged ○ Responsibilities: settle disputes, establish rules, determine eligibility, designate officials, regulate breeding and punish unscrupulous participants ● How did the English club system work in the US?: Harness Racing ● What were long lasting contributions of the english club structurer ○ Service to all members not just the elite but to build communities ○ Model for wider sport management practices in england ○ Led to initiation of national sport governing bodies ○ American sports have their roots in the club system ○ International club based festivals held in england led to revival of modern olympics (1896) ● From england to the united states: sports grow into a business ○ Early 1800s, the upper classes in the US tried to develop sports using the english club system as a model ● Adapting to the us: harness racing ○ Started out informal and began to growth in popularity ○ Lack of financial aid ■ Depend on entry fees and admissions ■ Catered to spectators (4 mile race vs. Sprint) ■ Large group- middle class ● Big market ● First professional baseball team in US ○ First pro team: cincinnati red stockings (1869) ○ Some teams in the league paid players and some did not, creating controversy and eventually the pro league ● *******William Hulbert and the National League (read slide and text book) ● William hulbert's national league ○ Baseball was the first sport to successfully employ a league structure ○ National league of prof baseball players (1876) ○ Czar of baseball ○ Created a league with strong rules to enforce team alliance ● Hulbert: ○ Strict enforcement of league schedule ○ Structured the league to have teams compete with each other, rather than collude ○ Reduce the influence of gambling instituted rules to distribute talent through 8 teams ○ Only allowed one NL team in any current NL city ○ Not allowed to play independent teams ○ Reverse ystem (keep salary low and roster consistent) ○ Banned african americans from playing in the league ○ Strictly enforcing all rules ○ Laid out governance structure of professional sport leagues in the united states ● ********Fred Corcoran and professional tournament sports (read slide and text book) ● Professional tournament sports: ○ Architect of golf tournament ○ Pitched tournament as medium through which celebrity, politician. Manufacturer, charity. Town or product can gain exposure ○ Used athletes and golf tournaments to sell advertising space to the public ● ******Key figures in women sport ● ​Female sport managers have contributed to industry ○ ​Heraea Games: Competition for unmarried girls, administered by women ○ ​Contributions in modern 8mes ■ Effa Manley of Newark Eagles (Negro League) ■ Billie Jean King (WTT, WSF) ■ Judy Sweet and Christine Grant (NCAA) ● *****************Baba Didrikson Zaharias, Katherine Switzer, Ann Meyers, ● 3. Management Principles ● Goal of management ○ To coordinate the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives by using available resources ​efficiently and effectively ● Functional areas ● Sports managers must perform in a number of functional areas and execute various activities in fulfilling the demands of their jobs’ ○ Planning ■ Defining organizational goals and determining appropriate means by which to achieve those goals ■ Setting a course of action for sport organizations ■ Plan should change and evolved and not set in stone ○ Organizing ■ Putting plans into action the manager determines what type of jobs need to be performed ○ Leading ● Evaluating ○ MEASURING AND ENSURING OBJECTIVES HAVE BEEN REACHED ● Definition of management and organization behavior Management Principles Need to Stress: ● Employee involvement ● Empowerment ● Commitment ■ Get workers to do what manager wants in an efficient and effective ways ● Functional areas: ● ● Planning ○ ○​ Knowing about what you want to do and what resources you have and using those to determine what you want to do to achieve organizational goals ○ ○ Managers must participate in both SHort term and Long term planning ● Organizing ○ Organizing ■ ○ Putting plans into action the manager determines the job needs to be performed and who will be responsible for doing these jobs ○ ■ Develop: ■ ● Organization Chart ■ ● Position Descriptions ( ■ ● Position Qualifications ● *******Evaluating ○ Vision, mission, and strategic objective ● Leading******* ● Management vs. leadership ● Management ○ ○ Transactional style ○ ○ Good time management ○ ○ Seeks stability ○ ○ Maintains controls ○ ○ Manages tasks ○ ○ Has subordinates ● Leadership ○ ○ Good at directing and motivating people ○ ○ Passionate ○ ○ Put people in right places ○ ○ Hire well ○ ○ Transformational style ○ ○ Has followers ● Types of leadership ○ ●​ Pragmatist ○ ● Idealist ○ ● Stweards ○ ● Diplomat ○ ● Key Skills: ● people skills ○ Very people intensive industry ○ Interact with people and high chance you will see the person again in the future ○ Want to manage reputation within the industry ● Communication ○ ● managing diversity ○ ○ Not a lot of diversity in this area and that is something that is being worked on ○ Women still underrepresented ● Technology ○ Usage of technology in the sportmedia ○ Game Day operations class ■ Simulation of media route and become producer or event ● decision making ○ ○ Classic Model ■ Problem statement ■ Generate alternatives ■ Evaluate alternatives ■ Select the best alternatives ○ ○ Participative decision making ■ Employees or members help to make decisions and work in process ● organizational politics ○ Use of power or other resource outside of the formal definition of one’s job to get a preferred outcome ○ FOUR TYPES ■ Coalitions ■ Outside experts ■ links/networks ■ Controlling info ○ Be aware of environment around you ● managing change ○ Should be able to see best thing for the company ■ People naturally resist change ● Motivation ○ Critical for everyone to be on the same page ○ Need to get people excited about their work ■ Want t
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