ANSC 201 Midterm: ANSC 201 Review 3

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Department
Animal Science
Course
ANSC 201
Professor
Josie Coverdale
Semester
Spring

Description
ANSC 281 1 Edition Exam #3 Study Guide Review 3(February 12) Monitoring Nutrition -How can an owner monitor a nutrition program? • Useful knowledge for feeding amounts and medications • Determine directly • Body Condition Score • Estimate -Wieght tape -Equation= (heart girth(in)2)(body length(in))/330 –denominator changes if not light horse Body Condition Score -Based on visual and tactile(touching) appraisal of 6 body areas • Ribs, behind shoulder, along neck, withers, crease down back, and tail head -Indirect determination of energy reserves -Scale of 1(poor)-9(extremely fat) -Ideal score differs with stage of life • Good broodmare= 6(more fleshy) • Performance horse= 5 Where can you strike? -Scalping –If front hoof hits right above back hoof -Speedy Culting- If front hoof hits between fetlock and pastern -Shin Hitting-If front hoof hits cannon bone -Hock Hitting-If front hoof hits hock/knee Equine Diseases VIRAL -Equine Influenza= highly contagious • Viral respiratory disease- most economically important respiratory disease • High morbidity and low mortality • Symptoms: depression, coughing, nasal discharge and fever • Treatment: rest 1 week for everyday with symptom and nasal (more effective)/injection vaccine available -Equine Rhinopnaumonitis= highly contagious and has different strains • Respiratory virus similar to flu • 2 strains of herpes virus -EHV-1: more severe, causes abortions and attacks nervous system (vaccine given at 5,7,9 months of gestation) -EHV-4: usually associated with a respiratory disease in young horses (similar to flu) • Symptoms: fever, nasal discharge, loss of appetite, and lethargic -West Nile Virus • Virus causes swelling of the brain • Endemic in TX-Spread by mosquito • Symptoms: similar to EEE/WEE- lack of appetite, brain swelling, sensitive to light • Diagnosis requires lab testing • Prevention: vaccination, avoid contact with mosquitos, control mosquitos -Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) • Viral disease-biting insects, contaminated needles • Diagnosed by Coggins test • No treatment or vaccine -Horses testing positive must have ID and be quarantined -Rabies= want to vaccine by vet to get documentation, zoonotic • Spread by infected hosts by bite (bat, skunks, etc.) • Symptoms: personality change (aggression), lack of appetite, incoordination, inability to swallow, nervous system damage • Quarantine for observation and there is no treatment (fatal) -Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE, EEE, WEE) • “Sleeping Sickness” • Viral degeneration of brains vascular system • Spread by mosquito • 3 types: -EEE= Eastern US; severe -WEE= western and midwest states; mild -VEE (Venezuelan)= Central and South America, Mexico; lethal BACTERIAL -Strangles- “Distemper” • Widespread communicable disease (unapparent carriers contain it in guttural pouches) -Guttural pouches= good place for bacteria to live and grow. In older horses this bacteria is held and are asymptomatic (treated with antibiotics) • Caused by Streptococcus Equi- constantly changing • Symptoms: depression, loss of appetite, high fever, swelling of glands (open and discharge pus) • Treatment: isolate infected animals, good nursing care -Tetanus- don’t have vaccine but use a toxoid that instantly builds protection • “Lockjaw” • Primarily a wound-infection disease- horses accident prone (wound related issue) • Clostridium Tetani- thrives in anaerobic conditions • Symptoms: stiffness, awkward gait, hypersensitive, sawhorse stance • High mortality -Equine Protozoal Myeloncephalitis(EPM)- only protozoal • Protozoa spread by opossum in infected poop • Once contracted, horse can’t spread it • Paralysis, asymmetric incoordination only on one side, affects spinal chord • Difficult to diagnose and treat(new treatments available) • New vaccine available but not real effective Preventing Disease -Requirements of new horses • Health certificate issued by vet(lasts until 2-3 weeks) • Vaccination Records • Coggins Test -Quarantine new horses 2-3 weeks (enough time for a disease to show) • Record temperature at the same time everyday -Vaccination all heard horses • Status- mature horses same schedule, and mares same schedule • Endemic diseases • Travel Schedule- vaccinated more frequently because moving from town to town -Quarantine sick animals • Cross contamination • Treat/feed sick horses last Vaccination Schedule -Adult Horses • Annual booster • Exceptions -Travel/Show= 2 times a year -Broodmares= vaccines given at 5, 7 and 9 months of gestation for rhino -Young Horses • <12 months • 1 dose at 4-6 months (wait for colostrum to wear off and after weaning) • 2 at 4-6 weeks after rd • 3 at 10-12 months (annual) • After the 3 booster they follow adult schedule Vaccination Methods -Forms of vaccine • Killed- virus becomes inactive (advantage- don’t feel sick after, disadvantage- slower working) • Modified Live- organism is alive with minimal symptoms (adv.- fast immune response, dis.- feel drowsy) • Recombinant- DNA technology, insert inactive virus/ bacteria cells that replicate quickly (adv.- strong immune response) -Methods of delivery • Intramuscular injection • Intranasal= highly effective -Reaction can take place with in 2-3hr Parasites Parasite Infestation- best way to find is through a fecal matter test -Signs of heavy parasite load: • Dull hair coat • Pot belly • Frequent colic- because worms clog intestines • Weight loss- because food goes to feed worms Common Internal Parasites -Tapeworm • More prevalent and dangerous • Flat and segmented worm • Causes severe inflammation at attachment • Forage mite is the intermediate host (pick up mites from forage) • Found in stomach, small intestine • Recent approval of antheminitics (dewormer of a combination of drugs to only kills tapeworms) -Acarids-“Roundworms” highly resistant • Observed in manure of inected horses • Horses ingest infective eggs • Larva migrate from small intestine to liver to lungs and back to intestine and cause colic (when re- arriving at intestine worms are adults) • Problem primarily in younger horses- older horses develop immunity -Strangles/ Bloodworms • Largest and most dangerous family • Two Groups -Large: leave intestine and migrate through tissue, most harmful, causes arterial damage with in the gut and causes anemia -Small: invade large intestinal mucosa and encyst • Damage: anemia, blockage of intestinal blood supply -Bots- most unique lifecycle with worm and fly, also the only seasonal parasite • Adult bot fly deposits egg on body and horse ingests • Create oral lesions then migrate to stomach and pass into manure in late spring • Damage: oral lesions, lesions of gastric and intestinal mucosa • Break life cycle by scraping egg off, dewormer, and fly traps -Threadworm-received through milk so mare is carrier • Concern in foals because can be transmitted through milk -Cause diarrhea (lack of nutrition and water) 10-14 days after birth- possible cause of foal scours • Develop immunity at 6 months of age • Prevention: dewormer Lesser-Known Parasites – more during the summer -Habronema= stomach worms (internal and external parasite • Inhabit stomach • Transmitted by house/stable flies -Deposit larvae on muzzle, eyes, or nose (around open wounds) -Summer scours -Lungworms- needs to be dewormed • Primary parasite of donkeys • Inhabit lungs- impede performance • Go through the circulatory system then the lungs -Pinworms- killed by dewormer • Common, large parasite • Inhabit large intestine -Females migrate to rectum to deposit eggs -Eggs attach to anus -Itches= horse rubs tail against surface (can become a vice) Prevention of Internal Parasites • Disruption of Lifecycle in pasture -Regular Deworming o Schedule o Methods= oral (through supplements and nasaly), paste, topical (bad), and injection (bad) -Anthelminitcs o Classes o Use= rotation (bad because horse can become resistant), types available -Pasture Management= rotate pastures, spread manure (light kills worms), rotate species -Manure Disposal -Feeding= don’t want to feed off the ground Dewormers Available -Drug class= Broad spectrum killing, but don’t want to give drugs within thhe same class because they do the same thing • Benzimidazzoles • Heteroclic • Macrocyclic Lactones • Terahydropyrimdines • Isoquinoline- pyrozines, praziquantel= tapeworm killer (doesn’t kill anything else) External Parasites -Flies= annoyance; transmit stomach worms -Mosquitos= disease vector -Ticks= may transmit disease -Lice -Mites First Aid -Emergency treatment you give until services of a veterinarian are available -Identify emergency situations -Be prepared- first aid kit, transportation, make horse, comfortable First Aid for the Horse Owner -Skills you should possess as an owner • Administer injections- IM, IV, Sub Q • Take vital signs (TPR)- temp, pulse, respiratory rate • Properly remove a shoe-underestimated skill • Treat minor abrasions or lacerations= maintain supplies fro purpose • Severe injury- give aid until vet arrives Normal Parameters of Health -TPR (most important) • Body temperature, Heart Rate, and Respiration Rate -Hydration status -Behavior/Attitude -Fecal production- not enough= colic (should poop 8-10 times 1 day) -Urine production Temperature -Normal range (99.5-101.5)= foals higher (100- 102) -Why elevated? Infection, after riding, weather temperature raises -How measured? Rectal=best Heart Rate- horses are slower -Normal range 28-40 beats per minute • Newborn 80-120, Foal 60-80, Yearling 40-60 -Why elevated? Indicate form of stress (pain, infection, and colic) -Measured? Stethoscope (on left side), and facial/leg artery (underneath chin or inside fetlock) Respiratory Rate -Normal range 8-16 breaths per minute= higher in foals -Why elevated? Stress, and discomfort -How measured? Nostrils (not accurate)/flank (must consistent) -Respiration rate should not exceed heart rate Capillary Refill Test (CRT)- oral membrane color • Indication of hydration status • Color should return in 1-2 seconds (longer= dehydrated) • Normal gums are bright pink (not pale or purple) • Skin tint test (pinch test)- pinch skin and see how long skin takes to go back Conditions Requiring Veterinary • Colic • Laminitis • Illness • Lameness • Injuries- wounds, eye, fractures Colic-abdominal pain -Symptoms: discomfort, rolling, HR increases, laying down, biting, kick -What to do? Take TPR, assess hydration, call vet • Take away remaining feed and monitor horse -Don’t do: give large amounts of painkillers, benamine in muscle causes infection and is anaerobic (give orally or IV) Recognizing Lameness- emergency when non-weight barring -Signs: pain, heat, swelling, stiffness, asymmetry -Front limbs- shift wait, when hurt leg goes down head will go up (head bob) -Hind limb- raise hock when standing, shorter stride, higher hip= hurt leg • If in hoof use hoof tester (squeezing) • Flexion test- kind of stretch type more for hock • If none of these then give injection and if not bobbing then location has been found Wound Care -Types of wounds • Abrasion- scrape, superficial wound • Incision- cuts (close with sutures) • Contusion- bruise • Puncture- ex. Nail (tetanus) • Laceration- tare with not enough flesh to suture • Eye- let vet deal with it -Restraint • Severity depends on location, depth, and type • Evaluate and determine if vet care required -Proper treatment prior to vets arrival (clean with water) -Control any bleeding • Clean gauze or pads to apply pressure • Horse can loose up to 10% before critical -Evaluate for signs of shock -Clean wound with water (antiseptic solution) • Do not pack wound with ointments and creams • Older lacerations can not be sutured (12-24 hours) Puncture and Eye Injuries -Puncture • Consult vet- tetanus -Provide drainage • Foot -Eye-fly mask, fungal and bacteria infections treated different • Consider emergency • Remove horse from sunlight • Inspect for foreign matter • Can always put saline First Aid Kit Items -Conforming bandage -Self-adhesive bandages -Sterile, non-stick gauze -Scissors -Thermometer -Stethoscope -Antibiotic spray/ointment -Twitch -Chemical restraint? -Medications- Bute (asprin), Banamine, etc. –If its not known, then don’t use -Saline solution (eye drop) Take Home Mes
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