ANSC 201 Midterm: ANSC 201 Review 1

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Animal Science
ANSC 201
Josie Coverdale

ANSC 281 1 Edition Exam # 1 Study Guide Review (February 12) History of the Horse -Fossils remains document presence of horses in North America during Tertiary period.( 58 million years ago) -No horses present when Columbus came (1492) Ancestors of the Horse Eocene (50 million years ago) • Eohippus -Earliest ancestor -Size of a dog/fox -Functional toes, 4 front, 3 hind -Lived in woods, browsers Oligocene (30 millions years ago) • Mesohippus -Taller -Toes evolved, 3 front and hind -Side toes smaller and middle became stronger -Toes end in small hoof with pad Miocene (20 million years ago) • Merychippus -First grazing horse -Size increased -Lived in herds -Lateral toes diminished -Main toe thickened -No pads Pliocene (5 million years ago) • Pliohippus -First one toed horse -Teeth and limbs similar to present horse -Spread to South America, Asia, Europe, and Africa -Lateral toes became the lateral toes Equus (today) -Modern horse -Became extinct in the western hemisphere, but Spanish brought horses back Big Picture of Evolution -Reduction in the number of toes -Increase in size of cheek teeth and body size -Lengthening of face Domestication and Wild Horses -Equus Caballus- modern horse, domesticated or feral -Equus Ferus Ferus- extinct tanpan from Russia -Equus przewalski- endangered Przewalski, never domesticated Equus Caballus -3 different body types: Light, Heavy, Pony - Other types of equids- donkeys, zebras -Uses: warfare, sports, and agriculture/transportation Breeds of Horses -Light- hot blooded -Heavy- draft, cold blooded - Warmblood- cross between hot and cold blooded -Pony- <14.2 hands Breed -Animals that, through selection and breeding, resemble one another and pass those traits to offspring. • Registered horse- 1 of a known horse heritage • Grade horse- unregistered(no papers) Light Horses- Oldest Foundation Breeds Arabian- Egypt • Endurance, slender, dish faced, defined muzzle, swan like neck • Missing a vertebrae, shorter/smaller, flatter back, active registration Thoroughbred- England • Long distance racers, thicker boned, long with lean muscle, • Naturally bred, long strided, larger Breeds Developed in the U.S American Quarter Horse • First registered horse was called Wimpy in 1941 • Ranch horse, sprint quarter mile, more muscle and speed Morgan • Single foundation sire- Justin Morgan • Versatile, 2 different types: saddle and stocker, smaller and stocky, animated movements • Slope to shoulder, come in solid colors of brown, bae, chestnut, black American Saddlebred- Kentucky • Single foundation sire, tall and long, 5 gates, 2 of which were breed into them: rack and slowgate Tennessee Walker • Mix with thoroughbred, standardbred, morgan, and saddlebred, More Arabian background • Big/tall/long, sickle-hocked, extra gate-running walk with no natural trot, soaring Standardbred • Harness racing, 2 gates for racing: trot and pace, long legged, angle and in shoulder & hock • More Arabian, larger horse U.S Color Breeds Palamino • Golden body with white mane and tail, van be registered as a quarterhorse Appaloosa • Still evolving, body color with white spots • 3 things needed for registration: striped hooves, white scalara, freckled skin American Paint Horse • Created from quarterhorse association- if white appeared on the horse it couldn’t register as a quarterhorse, so they developed a separate registration known as the Paint horse Pinto • Painted version of a palamino, only accepts color breeds Draft Breeds -Cold blooded, taller, docile, heavier boned Belgian- Belgian • Heaviest draft breed, big, strong, endurance, stocky, big boned,docile • Minimal feathering, not flashy because meant for working Percheron- France • Medium sized, athletic, lower body is heavier, used for making warm bloods Clydesdale- Scotland • Solid body color- bae, brown, with white feathering on lower legs, animated movements Shire- English • Tallest, solid body colors: black, bae, grey, with white hooves and feathering American Cream- Iowa • Only U.S draft breed, small number, cream body color with amber colored eye Friesian- Netherlands • Lighter more animated draft, athletic body, longer arched neck, huge, easygoing • Lots of hair don’t want white Suffolk- English • Shorter but stronger, deep bodies with short legs, no feathering or animation, used to pull things Pony Breeds -Small horses bred with one another Shetland- Scotland • 2 body sizes- draft and refined, stubborn and angry • Children horses, max height= 11.2 hands Miniature • Tiny, used as pets mostly, height done in inches Welsh-Wales • Can be riding horses, athletic, any color but paint, diff
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