[BIMS 201] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (12 pages long)

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TAMU
BIMS 201
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Types of Genetics
Transmission genetics: the branch of genetics concerned with the
mechanisms by which genes are transferred from parent to
offspring
C ytogenetics: the branch of genetics that studies the organization
and arrangement of genes and chromosomes using the techniques
of microscopy
Locate genes on specific chromosomes within specific
regions
Molecular G enetics: study of events at the biochemical level; uses
recombinant DNA technology to identify, isolate, clone and analyze
genes
Prenatal diagnostics
DNA fingerprinting
G ene therapy
Population G enetics: study of whole populations; study of the
forces that change gene frequencies and drive micro-evolutionary
process
Population: group of interbreeding individuals
Q uantitative G enetics: study of the contribution individual genes
make to various traits
Range of phenotypes
Hair color, eye color and skin color
More Definitions
G enomics: the study of the functions and interactions of many
genes or gene sequences
C an be used to do predictive work on different genetic
disorders and conditions
S een a lot in cancer work
Proteomics: the study of proteins produced in a particular cell type
under particular conditions (particular cell at a particular point in
time)
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G ene expression profile: detects the different mRNAs present
in a cell
Diseasome: a diagrammatic tool to link diseases with similar
symptoms and gene expression
S ome diseases share similar symptoms, but different
causes/gene expressions for the symptoms
C an be used to learn, look at unrelated things and repurpose
certain drugs for treatment purposes, etc.
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: Chromosomes, which
contain genes, are the carriers of the genetic material
C loning
We do not get back the same animal after cloning;
same genetic material but different phenotype
Different uterine environment (baby isn't coming
from grandmother's uterus)
Mitochondrial DNA is different - phenotypic
difference Is big
Difference in the way the chromosome ages
C hromosome: DNA + histone and non-histone proteins
(thousands); 23 chromosomes in a haploid human genome
46 in diploid human genome
Non-histone proteins create DNA replication
polymerases, RNA polymerase, or accessory proteins
associated with those
Females - homogametic
Karyotype: a display of a genome in size order of
chromosomes (1-22; then sex chromosomes)
Through staining or other methods
Total chromosomal complement of a cell during mitosis
(metaphase)
S hortest, fattest and most condense
Allows us identify chromosomes
Banding depends on what is transcribed and what
is not
S omething that isn't being expressed is
very tightly coiled where as something that
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