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Texas A&M University
BIOL 112

Biology Exam Three- Robyn Lints Chapter 33 Animals Derived Characteristics - More closely related to fungi Animal Characteristics - Multicellular o Not specific to animals - Ingestive heterotrophs o Take food into body to digest o C.f. fungi are heterotrophs, but absorptive ones - Cells have no cell walls o Whereas bacteria, plants, and fungi do - Embryonic Development o Embryos form a blastula (figure 32.2)  Blastula= hollow ball of cells o Primordial germ layers  Ectoderm (skin, nervous system, nails)  Endoderm ( internal organs, gut, respiratory surfaces, gonads)  Mesoderm (muscle, bones, cartilage, bones, circulatory system) o Most animals are triploblastic (3 germ layers) o Some are diploblastic (2 germ layers) Protostomes vs. Dueterostomes o Figure 32.9 o Triploblasts o Most invertebrates (except echinoderms) are protostomes o Protostomes  Cleavage: spiral  Cell fate: determinant  Ultimate identity of the cell (ex. Muscle, neuron, gut, etc.)  Determinant- fate of cells is set early and it can’t become anything else (fixed) o Not plastic! Not flexible! o If cell is lost, no other cell can take its place o Deuterostomes  Cleavage: radial  Cell fate: indeterminant  Indeterminate: cell’s fate is NOT predetermined, not fixed until very late in development o If cell is lost, others can alter their fate to replace it o Plasticity! Flexible!  Protosome -Deuterostome - Neurons and Muscles o ONLY in ANIMALS o Figure 48.4 o Neurons  Transmit info through body with electrical signals o Synapse types  Electrical synapse “ion channel”  Chemical Synapse o Neural circuit  Sensory input  integration  motor output o Figure 48.5: neurons functional classes o Muscle cells: specific to animals o Contractile cell  Contractile unit made of actin and myosin  Crawl along filament  muscle contraction  Figure 50.29 o Neuron and muscle physiology is pretty much the same from one species to another o How they wire together (form circuits)  Species and their specific behaviors o The cockroach beat box (Greg Gage, YouTube) - Hox Genes (animal specific) o All transcription factors have DNA binding domains o Region recognizes a specific sequence in a promoter o Types of DNA binding domains:  Homeodomain: ATTATA  Zn-Finger Domain: GC…etc… o Most organisms have more than one o How genes are grouped together in clusters on a chromosome o Chapter 25, page. 525-528 o Expression is co-linear with gene position in the cluster where a gene is expressed  It controls development of that region o Acts by controlling many target genes o 1 hox gene contains a transcription factor  Determine where a structure will develop on body axis o Target  Structural genes  Proteins that contribute to a structure  Transcription factor genes  Turn on other genes (e.g. structural genes) o Changes in Hox gene sequences can lead to new body forma  Point mutation  Gene duplication (paralogs) then sequence divergence between paralogs
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