[BIOL 320] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (43 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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TAMU
BIOL 320
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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6 Categories of Nutrients:
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
Major Nutrients
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Essential Nutrients
Must be in the diet, because the body cannot make it fast enough
Carbohydrates
Derived from plants
Exceptions:
Lactose (milk sugar)
Negligible amounts of glycogen in meats
Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
Sugars
Come from:
Fruits
Sugar cane/beets
Honey
Milk
Polysaccharides
Starch
Come from:
Grains
Vegetables
Provides
Two varieties:
Insoluble
Ex: Cellulose
Found in most vegetables
Not digested by humans
Increases the bulk of the stool and facilitates in defecation
Soluble
Ex: Pectin
Found in apples and citrus fruits
Reduces blood cholesterol levels
Phospholipids are important components of what?
Myelin sheaths and cell membranes
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Lipid metabolism in the liver;
Synthesizes lipoproteins for transport of cholesterol and fats
Makes tissue factor-- a clotting factor
Synthesizes cholesterol for acetyl CoA
Uses cholesterol to form bile salts
Cholesterol is the structural basis for:
Vitamin D
Steroid hormone
Bile salts
Cholesterol transports:
HDL
High density lipoproteins
Should be twice as abundant as LDL for proper cholesterol movement
Transports excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to liver, ovaries,
and adrenal glands
LDL
Low density lipoproteins
Should be ½ as abundant as HDL for proper cholesterol movement
Transports cholesterol to peripheral tissues
VLDL
Very low density lipoproteins
Mostly triglycerides
Moves energy fats to peripheral tissues
Chylomicron
VLDL
LDL
HDL
Triglyceride
80-95%
55-65%
10%
5%
Phospholipid
3-6%
15-20%
20%
30%
Cholesterol
2-7%
10-15%
45%
20%
Protein
1-2%
5-10%
25%
45-50%
Notes
From intestine
Made by liver
Made by liver
Returned to liver
Most abundant:
Triglycerides
Chylomicron
Phospholipid
HDL
Cholesterol
LDL
Protein
HDL
Least abundant:
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