[KINE 223] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 38 pages long Study Guide!

70 views38 pages

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

TAMU
KINE 223
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 38 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 38 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Scientific Inquiry
Not All Scientific Studies Are Created EqualDavid H. Schwartz.
What are these studies, how are they performed, and how do we know whether
or not they are reliable?
Dietary/medical info
o Studies w/ animals or cells can point to areas of more research
o only can know how something will affect humans is through a study
involving human subjects
Scientific gold standard randomized clinical trials RCTs
o Subjects are randomly assigned to their study groups
o Often blinded to make sure that the researchers are the only ones who
know the difference between the groups
o With proper randomization the only difference between the groups will
be whether or not they received the medication, rather than other things
that can affect the results
o US FDA often required two RCAs to be conducted before a new drug can
be produced/marketed
Problem is RCTs are not always possible
o Not practical
o Would require too many volunteers
When this happens scientists will use an epidemiological study
o Observes people going about their usual behavior rather than assigning
participants to control groups
o Find those who already use the product/ingredient/substance in their
everyday livescohort
o Compare those to a group of people not exposed to the ingredient
o Great tools to study the health effects of almost anything without directly
interfering with people lives or exposing them to something that could
potentially be harmful
Why can’t we rely on epidemiological studies to study causal relationships with
these substances and their effects on health?
o Even the best conducted of these studies have inherent flaws
o Test subjects are not randomly assigned to their groups
o Factors that can affect the study in addition to the factor being studied
confounding variables
o Good study must go out of its ways to prove that authors have taken steps
to eliminate these types of errors
Single epidemiological study can only demonstrate a correlation between a
substance and a health outcome
o Rather than a true cause and effect relationship
o Epidemiological studiesneed multiple well conducted studies
Learn about actual study before jumping to conclusions
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 38 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Wellness, Longevity, and Behavior Change
How to Live to Be 100+--Dan Buettner
Danish Twin Study
o Only about 10% of the average age we live is dictated by our genes
o Other 90% is dictated by our lifestyle
o If we can find the best lifestyle for longevity we can find the formula for
longevity
Find four demographically confirmed areas that are geographically defined
o Team of experts to find what these people docross culture distillation
Debunk Myths
o If you try really hard you can live to be 100
False
Only about 1 out of every 5,000 people in America live to be 100
Chances are very low
Fastest growing demographic America, still hard
We are not programmed for longevity
We are programmed for procreative success
The age where you have children, and the age where your children
have children
After that the affect of evolution completely dissipates
)f you’re a mammal it’s the same story
Not only need a good lifestyle but also need to have won the
genetic lottery
o There are treatments that can control, reverse, or even stop aging
False
There are 99 things that can age us
Too many things to go wrong
35 trillion cellsturn over once every 8 years, each time with
building up damage
65 year old ages at a rate about 125x faster than a 12 year old
Best science tells us is the capacity of the body is about 90 years (more in
women)
o Life expectancy in US is only 78
o Blue zones avg age 100
Nouru Province, Highlands, Italy
o Live to hundreds in vigorance
o Very active
o Shepherds
o Plant based diet
o Wine
o Older you get, more equity you have, more wisdom
o Adds mortality4-6 more years of living
o Grandmother effect—good for children’s mortality
Okinowa, Japan
o Ground zero for world longetivity
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 38 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class