[NRSC 335] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (23 pages long!)

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TAMU
NRSC 335
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Early hominids
Three mill year old skull from Australopithecus africanus has
distinct cranial fractures
Dart (1893) suggested fractures resulted from a club wound
to back of head
Majority of baboon skulls at site show similar skull fractures
S uggests early hominids knew brain was a vital organ
Trephination
S kulls found at Neolithic sites (<10,000 y.o) have man made
holes
Therapeutic?
Early ancestors had some appreciation that the brain
was linked with mental function
Burr holes - now routine procedure to relieve pressure on
brain
Ancient Egyptians
Edwin S mith S urgical Papyrus
S mith purchased in 1862
Translated in 1920
References to head injuries
C hanges in walking with head injury
Paralysis; sensory loss
Treatment of head injury
Author was correlating brain injury to changes in
neurological behavior and function
Thought mental functions were from the heart
Heart - lively and vital, where as brain - dull and wet
Liver, kidneys, and intestines were removed and preserved
Brain was removed and discarded
Dead were buried with heart for later judgement (weighed
against a feather)
Greeks
Aristotle
Proponent of mental faculties emerging from heart
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Heart = quick, moving, alive
Warm heart was more consistent with soul than "cold"
brain
Brain may serve to cool blood
S oul is what drives mental function
Plato
Thought soul was composed of three parts
Intellect
Higher passions
Anger
Fear
Pride
C ourage
Lower passions
Lust
G reed
Desire
Intellect associated with head
G alen
Dissected animals and studied brain
Rejected notion that brain was merely a cooling organ
Brain ventricles important for mind
Assumed the ventricles is "where the action is"
"psychic pneuma:" vital spirits, animal spirits (in regards to
C S F in ventricles)
Connected structure and function
Notion of ventricular localization persisted through Middle
Ages
Three ventricles
Perception
C ognition
Memory
C ardiocentric view remained popular
Little progress in 1000 years - clerical ban on surgery
Renaissance
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