[PSYC 107] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (84 pages long)

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TAMU
PSYC 107
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Why we n e e d Re s earch De s igns
In the early 1990s , a n a utism tre a tme nt was de ve loped called
"facilitate d communication."
The facilita tor sat next to child with a utis m and guided
the child's ha nd over a ke yboa rd, allowing the children
to type out words
Facilitator ca n type whateve r the y wa nt, does n't
mean it's coming from the kids exa ctly
Students s e emed to make stunning progres s in
communica tion, telling pa re nts "I love you" a nd writing
poe try.
However, s ome stude nts be ga n ma king a llegations of
s e xual a buse against parents
"s a vior effect? "
Facilitators trying to protect the kids and
s ubcons cious ly
Dozens of controlle d s tudie s examine d the
phe nome non a nd found tha t the words came sole ly
from the minds of the fa cilita tors
Still, s ome people continue to practice facilita ted
communica tion.
P re fronta l lobotomy
Originally would drill he a d through side of s kull
Mes s around with brain?
Over 100 died
S till le gal in some countrie s
Developer won the Nobe l P rize
In it, the neural fibe rs conne cting fronta l lobe s to the
thalamus we re s e vered
Be ca me very docile whe n originally the y we re
angry
In re a lity, just ca using bra in damage
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Control studie s s howed it didn't work
Now, tra ns-orbita l lobotomy
No effect, no thera peutical effe ct in huma ns
Two Mo d e s of Thin kin g
Heuristics: mental shortcuts or rule s of thumb tha t we us e
daily
reduce the cognitive energy require d to solve proble ms
but we oversimplify reality
E.x. we think S an Die go is West of Re do,
Nevada but in reality it's
Representa tivenes s he uristic
We ass ume a n event is more like ly to occur if the y
fit the represe nta tion of tha t idea
E.X: HHTTHTHTTH is just a s like ly a s
HHHHHHHHHH even though we would
as s ume the first is more like ly
Availa bility he uristic
We ove re s timate the proba bility of s ome thing
depending on how many a vaila bilities of the idea
we have in our hea ds
E.X: a mount of deaths cause d by sharks ,
cows , horse s , rattlesnake s a nd dogs
35 de a ths by dogs, 22 deaths by cows ,
ONLY SIX deaths by sharks
Principle s o f Re s ea rc h De s ig n s
P e rceive the question
Form a hypothe sis
Diffe rence between hypothes is a nd theory:
Theory is not a n educated gue ss , and are
s upporte d by e vide nce
Hypothes is bas e d off of a n exis ting the ory?
Tes t the hypothe sis
Dra w conclusions
Report re s ults clearly
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