PSYC 107- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 103 pages long!)

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PSYC 107
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Why we n e e d Re s earch De s igns
In the early 1990s , a n a utism tre atment was de velope d called
"fa cilitate d communication."
The fa cilita tor sat next to child with autis m and guide d
the child's hand ove r a ke yboa rd, allowing the children
to type out words
Facilitator can type whate ve r they want, doesn't
mea n it's coming from the kids e xactly
Students see me d to ma ke s tunning progre ss in
communication, telling parents "I love you" a nd writing
poe try.
However, s ome stude nts be ga n ma king alle ga tions of
s e xua l a buse a gains t pa re nts
"s a vior effe ct? "
Facilitators trying to protect the kids and
s ubcons cious ly
Dozens of controlle d s tudies e xamined the
phe nome non a nd found that the words came s olely
from the minds of the fa cilitators
Still, some people continue to practice fa cilita te d
communication.
P re frontal lobotomy
Originally would drill he ad through side of s kull
Me s s around with brain?
Over 100 died
S till le ga l in some countrie s
Developer won the Nobel P rize
In it, the neura l fibers conne cting fronta l lobes to the
thala mus we re s e vered
Be came very docile whe n originally they were
angry
In rea lity, jus t causing brain damage
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Control s tudies showed it didn't work
Now, tra ns-orbital lobotomy
No effe ct, no thera pe utica l e ffe ct in humans
Two Mo d e s of Th inkin g
Heuris tics : mental s hortcuts or rule s of thumb tha t we use
daily
reduce the cognitive e nergy re quired to solve proble ms
but we ove rsimplify re ality
E.x. we think S a n Die go is We s t of Redo,
Nevada but in reality it's
Represe ntativenes s he uris tic
We ass ume an e vent is more like ly to occur if they
fit the repres entation of tha t idea
E.X: HHTTHTHTTH is just a s likely a s
HHHHHHHHHH even though we would
as sume the first is more likely
Availa bility heuris tic
We overe s tima te the proba bility of s ome thing
depending on how many availa bilitie s of the idea
we have in our hea ds
E.X: a mount of de a ths cause d by s harks,
cows, horse s , rattle sna ke s a nd dogs
35 de a ths by dogs , 22 dea ths by cows ,
ONLY S IX deaths by sharks
Principle s o f Res e a rc h De s igns
P e rceive the que stion
Form a hypothe sis
Diffe rence betwe e n hypothe sis a nd the ory:
Theory is not an educated gue s s , and are
s upporte d by e vide nce
Hypothes is bas e d off of a n e xis ting theory?
Tes t the hypothes is
Dra w conclusions
Report results cle a rly
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Document Summary

Study guide: wh y we n e e d re s e a rc h de s ig n s. In the e a rly 1990s , a n a utis m tre a tme nt wa s de ve lope d ca lle d. Fa cilita tor ca n type wha te ve r the y wa nt, doe s n"t me a n it"s coming from the kids e xa ctly. S till, s ome pe ople continue to pra ctice fa cilita te d communica tion. P re fronta l lobotomy: origina lly would drill he a d through s ide of s kull, me s s a round with bra in, ove r 100 die d. S till le ga l in s ome countrie s: de ve lope r won the nobe l p rize. 35 de a ths by dogs , 22 de a ths by cows ,

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