[PSYC 340] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (134 pages long)

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TAMU
PSYC 340
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYC 340- Learning
Jim Grau
Office: ILSB
http://www.Graulab.tamu.edu/J-Grau/Psyc340.html - syllabus available here
8/30:
Approaches to learning
The nature of learning
Introduction
oAIMS
oWhy is learning important
oA comparative approach
oWhat is learning
Nativism vs. empiricism
Fuzzy boundary
Learning vs. memory
Forms of plasticity
Common criteria for learning
oApproaches to the study of learning
Forms of Explanation: efficient, formal, material and finals causes
What would a system be like if we lacked the potential to learn?
oPainfully consistent- can be very active, almost like a robot, lack of progression, can’t
adapt behavior. It would work in a mechanical fashion
oLearning allows you to adapt and interact with your environment in a flexible way, it
allows you to predict the future based off of previous experiences
oDumb behavior means that they are incapable of learning and cant benefit from
experience
Nativism Vs. Empiricism
oNativism- you are born with innate qualities that will make you achieve certain things
Focus on qualities you are born with
Civil war era- if you are born black you will be a slave and can be sold and
bought
Monarchy- you were born to be a king- you were born with the abilities to
innately become a king
Caste system
oEmpiricism- You believe that everyone is equal and you evolve/ achieve based on
experiences
Value Education funding
Favor programs like Head Start
Politically- Democrat
First thing you did this morning was a Pavlovian conditioned response
oWhen you wake up and stand up you have a conditioned increase in blood pressure
and circulation – the reason you faint is you have lost the conditioned response
Stopped with What is Learning
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9/1/2016:
Approaches to Learning
What is learning
Learning is the acquisition of information through experience
oExperience need not be conscious
Learning involves empiricist approach- knowledge acquired through experience
oHas to acknowledge that something is innate
oBelieve that the organism is born with the ability to learn
Nativism- born with everything you could know
oA lot of what you do is innately wired but there is still some learning involved
oIn truth most everything is in-between nativism and empiricism
If something is not biologically prepared then it is something that we can not
comprehend/contemplate
What’s memory without learning?
oIt is a hallucination or psychotic episode
Can think of memory and learning as 2 sides of a coin- you cant have one without the other
Forms of plasticity
oNeural plasticity
There are multiple types
There is a neural plasticity involved in development, neural injury, or
experience
Common Criteria for Learning
o1. The behavioral modification depends on a form of neural plasticity
o2. The modification depends on the organism’s experiential history
o3 (a) The modification outlasts (extends beyond) the environmental contingencies
used to induce it. (b) The experience has a lasting effect on performance
We reserve the term learning for when the stimulus has a lasting effect on the organisms
behavior
Approaches to the study of learning
oForms of explanation: efficient, formal, material and final causes
The material costs we are concerned with are with the underlying neural
biological mechanisms and the processes
2
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Document Summary

Introduction: aims, why is learning important, a comparative approach, what is learning. Common criteria for learning: approaches to the study of learning. Forms of explanation: efficient, formal, material and finals causes. What would a system be like if we lacked the potential to learn: painfully consistent- can be very active, almost like a robot, lack of progression, can"t adapt behavior. Nativism vs. empiricism: nativism- you are born with innate qualities that will make you achieve certain things. Focus on qualities you are born with. Civil war era- if you are born black you will be a slave and can be sold and bought. Monarchy- you were born to be a king- you were born with the abilities to innately become a king. Caste system: empiricism- you believe that everyone is equal and you evolve/ achieve based on experiences. Learning is the acquisition of information through experience: experience need not be conscious.

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