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SOCI 217 Final: Midterm 2 Review-- accumulative

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SOCI 217
Joseph Jewell

Midterm 2 Review “The Melting Pot” • Mixture of cultures going into a “pot” and blend into one as though all their differences will disappear • There’s an assumption that you should lose some of your culture if you want to be in the dominant society and not looked at as an “outsider” o Assimilation with the adoption of “American” culture • The creation of communities due to ethnicity and race because of the familiarity feeling, they disappear over time, but social mobility is increased • Assimilation is a long-term process and it happens differently for different groups, including different rates The Color Line • The melting pot idea is based on the color line o Think about how people say that the people of color are the logs under the pot, keeping it going • Cultures change over time (dynamic), they change by mixing and blending; People adopt other people’s cultures (Tejano music, being bilingual) • Assimilation is irrelevant is you’re not identified as white o So, if you are not considered “white,” then no matter how long you or your family has lived here, you’re still looked at as an “other” • These racial barriers limit the social mobility of certain groups of people • You get a double consciousness that people are aware of these things going on in the host society and the more diverse a person is, the more of a double consciousness is developed • `All these categories vary around the world, so we see race as we’re trained to see it o There is no one way of looking “American.” What about Mexican Americans? African Americans? Asian Americans? They all look different, but they are all America, therefore a white American isn’t the only way an American looks The Problem of the Color Line, Theory (DU BOIS) • The identity that we create for ourselves comes from the interaction with others and also social institutions, so if we are looked at as negatively then Midterm 2 Review we might just think of ourselves as negative or give in to stereotypes that are said about our particular groups • “Double Consciousness” o Whereas you are aware of where you belong with your group and how other see you and that influences who you are o We are aware of how others see us and this is a part of our identity Two types of Theories • Order Theories— that is based on ideas of society being fully logical, rational, and ordered o Assimilation o Prejudice o Discrimination • Stratification Theories—which are patterns of conflict, exclusion, and exploitation o Conflict o Exclusion o Exploitation o Introduces the Split Labor Market Theory which includes the two labor markets of which where people are placed The Race Relations Cycle (PARK) • Intergroup relations go through 4 stages: o (1) Contact ▪ When groups encounter each other through migration, exploration, or another form of interaction; they have contact and examine their differences o (2) Competition/Conflict ▪ When they encounter each other, they will compete for valuable resources • Food, jobs, etc. • Goes between migrant and host o (3) Accommodation Midterm 2 Review ▪ New comers adjust to new condition and leads to stabilization of group relations; they must adopt other things to survive • Example: Dominant language o (4) Assimilation ▪ Over time, the migrant group will become assimilated into the host society • Could happen over generations, there’s no fixed amount of time in which this happens o No fixed amount of time, because some groups may be more similar to the host society therefore decreasing the amount of time they take to assimilate and vice versa with other groups that are not really similar to the host society Stages of Assimilation (GORDON) • REMEMBER, that everyone and every group experience assimilation in different ways and different paces so Gordon is emphasizing that o Groups vary in what types of assimilations they are low or high in • Says there are multiple forms of assimilation and it’s not an individual concept o Melting Pot—that now instead of a “pot” you should have a “salad” in which enriches society with all the diversity o Cultural Pluralism—which is agreeing to coexist and retain the key elements of their ethnic culture even though they also participate in the dominant culture o Anglo-Conformity—people leave everything behind and just conform to the Angle culture ▪ Dress ▪ Only speaking English ▪ Style • Critiques Park on assimilation whereas we need to look at what people’s lives actually look like because there are different types of assimilation Midterm 2 Review o Cultural/Behavior Assimilation—change cultural patterns to the host society like learning the dominant language and/or alter certain holidays ▪ We’ve all assimilated to some degree to be in a college and university culture, because we know what is expected of us • Form of assimilation o Structural Assimilation—people of different races going to the same schools and living in the same neighborhoods ▪ Everyday contact with people who have differences to you o Martial Assimilation ▪ Large scale intermarriage o Identification Assimilation ▪ Identity if just with the host society; “I’m just American” o Attitude Assimilation ▪ Has to do with how the dominant culture sees you; aware of your differences to them and that becomes part of your identity as well o Behaviors-Receptional Assimilation ▪ Absence discrimination o Civic Assimilation ▪ No conflict whatsoever Pluralism • Democratic rights for ethnic collectivities • Multicultural as an official party of the state o Saying that no one should be forced to give up their culture to become a part of society • National culture with ethnic communities o “There is no one way to be Canadian” o “We all have different cultures and that’s totally fine” • The United States is sort of considered a pluralistic society Midterm 2 Review o Yes, because it does have a lot of diversity o No, because it targets certain immigrants, like for example the Muslim Ban is REALLY NOT pluralistic • It’s like a salad where everyone’s culture enriches society Ethnogenesis • Creating new ethnic identities from self-consciousness • Driven by immigration, migration, patterns of inclusions or exclusions, etc. • Example: A Mexican American is different than Chicano o Mexican American implies that you are American but from Mexico; Chicano implies that you were born in the U.S and might be second or third generation • Ethnic identities change over time o We define ourselves different than we did 30 years ago and so on, grandchildren will continue to change the way they identify themselves Challenges to Assimilation Theories • “The Immigrant Paradox” o Immigrants have way better health than someone who is native born to Country A. Why? Because of traditional food and over time assimilation is also taking place in which they adopt host culture more so than their own o It’s a paradox because you come to Country A where they are advanced in health and technology but your health is actually bad because of the diet that is taken ▪ Example: Salsa; Making homemade salsa from vegetables than getting salsa from a can (less healthy) Intersectionality • It is looking at the interplay among race, class, and gender to understand how these racial/ethnic hierarchies define, maintain, and legitimate each other. o It shifts from “either/or” to “both/and” • Modern societies have multiple hierarchies at work o Class Midterm 2 Review o Race o Gender o Sexuality • These hierarchies are socially constructed; they vary over region and time period, plus are durable and malleable o Example: Who is considered white has changed • At work during multiple levels: o Micro—individual o Meso—ads, symbols, meanings o Macro—policies, laws • These hierarchies form a “Matrix of inequality” o They don’t add up but they interact with each other; Define, maintain, and legitimate • Think about how no one has just one identity; Everyone has an ethnic, race, gender, sexuality, and class identity o Intersectionality is trying to explain how they mutually construct and reinforce each other “The Caste Perspective” (WARNER, DAVIS, & MYRDAL) • Looks at race as a form of “caste” system o Born to a particular group and cannot leave it o Through institutionalized discrimination ▪ That has a political system that enforce racial segregation and puts certain groups there • Moral dilemma of race/racism (difficult choice) o Jim Crow and Juan Crow o Excluding Asian Americans and immigrants o “American Dream” and how it’s skewed towards benefits a particular group o Myrdal’s “Cycle of Prejudice” ▪ MP is seen as inferior by the majority MP is treated differently in society MP has unequal access to Midterm 2 Review resources MP results in a lower standing on social indicators • See if we start to treat a particular group differently, then we treat them as though they are less (becomes more justified, because of the belief “They don’t deserve good things” Race Versus Caste (COX) • Race was created do to economic opportunities that would open up labor markets o Race= invention of modern capitalism to justify the exploitation of certain groups; For example: slavery • Race prejudice supports a class system o Because people want to stay at a high economic position, they’ll do almost anything to stay there including labeling a particular group as “inferior” or “fit for hard labor” o Benefit to the capitalist • Everyone is fighting each other instead of fighting the dudes that are up there making all the money • “Caste” is also subjective so it varies from place to place • Points out that changing people’s hearts and minds are not an effective way to end the unequal distribution of resources o To end it, you have to attack the unequal access to the resources because that’s really what keeps people at the bottom of the class system • Race is a concrete economic benefit because it creates a certain group of people who cannot fit into a particular position because in a caste they all have an assigns task Split Labor Markets (BONACICH & MODELL) • Race and Ethnicity are tools for class conflict o They are used to take away eye from class Midterm 2 Review o By having a group that can be paid less, or forced to work in unsafe conditions they result in a lower class • History o Slavery ▪ You had a particular race targeted that was easy to identify, a whole continent to “pick” from, and are not Christian (seen as even more inferior) ▪ Lowest class that they weren’t even considered human o Immigration ▪ Over the years different groups are targeted o Colonialism ▪ Exploiting other colonies to benefit the mother country o National Expansion ▪ Developing country in need of labor • Split Labor Market Theory Comparison o There’s two markets: ▪ (1) more skills needed and higher pay ▪ (2) less skills needed, and lower pay o It compares because as certain race and ethnicities are seen as a lower class, they are then associated with the Second Labor Market of not having the most desirable jobs ▪ Now, if you’re seen as a high class, then the opportunity for landing in the Primary
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