SOCI 304 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Differential Association, Productive Forces, Dialectic

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social process theory - positive or negative societal relationships influence a person’s ability to
resist crime
social learning theory - crime is a learned behavior
social control theory - crime occurs when the forces that bind people to society are weakened or
broken
differential association theory - criminal behavior, perception of the legal code, and techniques
are learned through interaction; the process of learning and these interaction relationships may
vary over time in intensity and duration; criminal behavior is an expression of needs and
desires, but is not excused by them
differential reinforcement theory - behavior is either directly rewarded or punished through
interactions with others
containment theory - a strong self image acts as a barrier between an individual and criminal
influences
symbolic interaction theory - people communicate via symbols which are then incorporated into
their self identity
dramatization of evil - the process by which stigmatized offenders begin to reevaluate their own
identities
contextual discrimination - the process by which minorities are convicted more often and given
harsher sentences than White males
productive forces - resources and technology which makes production of goods possible
productive relations - relationships that exist among people producing goods and services
lumpen proletariat - nonproductive members of society who live parasitically off the work of
others
dialectic method - for every thesis there exists an opposing antithesis and the only viable way to
accept them is through forming a synthesis
imperatively coordinated associations - society is a plurality of competing interests largely
grouped into to: those who possess authority and use it for social domination and those who
lack authority and are dominated
reintegrative shaming - disapproval is extended to the offender’s deeds while still treating him as
a member who can be reaccepted into society
life course theories - sees criminality as a dynamic process influenced by many characteristics
trajectory theory - multiple subgroups within a population that follow distinctively different
developmental trajectories that lead them toward a criminal career
age-graded theory - individual traits and childhood experiences can create cumulative
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