SOCI 304 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Victimless Crime, Insider Trading, Good And Evil

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Exam 3 Review Criminology 304
DON’T FORGET TO READ THE BOOK FOR THE ESSAY!!!!!
is there any sort of outline or did she say anything on what the essay question
might entail?
She will probably ask us to relate the Black Kings gang to what we learned
about gangs, drugs, and prostitution in our notes, among other things
As in: Rites of passage, OG status, and the organization? + how the prostitutes
might have entered prostitution?
hey i read this book last semester and have class notes on it, would y’all want
me to post those at the bottom of this review? its like 7 pages...
Hate Crime
1. Definitions
1. Siegel, 2004 - hate or bias crimes are violent acts directed toward a
particular person or members of a group because the targets share a race,
ethnic or religion characteristic
1.1. unique because it says hate crimes are a violent act
2. Harlow, 2005 - an ordinary crime becomes a hate crime when offenders
choose a victim because of some characteristic (race, ethnicity, or
religion) and provide evidence that hate prompted them to commit a crime
2.1. ex: people targeted jewish cemeteries and painted
swastikas, technically a property crime but is considered hate b/c
of swastikas
2. Culture of Hate
1. A person’s group affiliation continues to provide a basis for
dehumanizing and insulting treatment
2. Hatred expressed in mass culture through art, music, religion, and humor
3. Young people more likely to commit hate crimes (<25 years old)
III. Types of Hate Crime
1. Thrill-Seeking - most common
1.1. looks to harass those that are different
1.2. has a psychological and social payoff; thrill of making
someone suffer and their friends may approve
1.3. Often done in groups
1.4. Offenders and victims don’t really have a relationship
beforehand
1.5. interchangeability of victims
1.1.1. anyone within a group will do
1.2. doesn’t have economic motives
2. Defensive Hate Crimes - there was an event that makes them do it
2.1. reaction to what the offender considers a triggering incident
to serve as a catalyst for the expression of their anger
2.2. offenders see themselves as doing good for others
1
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2.3. primary victims are people of color
2.4. target is a particular person or group who are seen to pose a
threat
2.5. interchangeability of victims
1.1.1. anyone within a group will do
1.2. provide offender with a sense of entitlement; person sees
themselves as being a hero
1.3. can have economic motives - feel something is being
threatened; symbolic loss of privilege
2. Mission Hate Crimes - rarest
2.1. attack carried out with a mission; seek to rid the world of
“evil”
2.2. offender usually feels like they have a duty to do this
IV. James Byrd example; Two Towns of Jasper documentary
1. thrill-seeking hate crime
2. June 7th, 1998 at midnight in Jasper, Texas
3. Bill King (sentenced to execution), Russell Brewer (executed), and Shawn
Berry (life in prison) were driving around drinking and looking for chicks
when they saw James Byrd, a black male, walking down the street and
offered him a ride
4. They then spray painted his face black, chained him to the bed of the truck
and drove for two miles until he was decapitated around 3 AM
5. Features of Hate Crimes:
5.1. Excessively Brutal
5.2. Interchangeability of Victim
5.3. Group Crime
V. Puzzles documentary
1. defensive hate crime
2. New Bedford gay bar called “Puzzles”, individual assaulted several people
one night then ran away. Tracked down and chased, killed two then was
killed himself.
VI. Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990
1. law requires data to be gathered about proven hate crimes (murder, rape,
abuse, property, etc.)
2. In 1994, hate crimes against disabled people were added to the list
VII. Socio-demographic Correlates (ex. age)
1. More likely to experience hate crime
1.1. males
1.2. people of two or more races
1.3. 12-24 year olds
1.4. people with low incomes
2
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Exam 3 Review Criminology 304
2. Hate crimes usually happens interracially; between groups; this is unlike
murder
VIII. Levin and McDevitt from Boundaries
1. Responsible for chapter
2. Key points include:
2.1. Characteristics of Hate Crime
1.1.1. Excessively brutal (50% of hate crimes are assaults)
1.1.2. Senseless or irrational crimes perpetrated at random
on total strangers
1.1.2.1. According to the National Crime Survey
61% of all crimes of violence are committed by
strangers
1.1.3. Usually perpetrated by multiple offenders
1.1.3.1. 64% of all hate crimes reported to police
involve two or more perpetrators
1.1.1.1.1. this is contrast to the 25 % of all
crimes in the National Crime Survey
1.2. Interchangeability of Victims
their behavior characteristics being irrelevant or at best secondary in determining
why they were chosen for victimization
3.3. Role of Stereotypes
The beliefs that we call stereotypes :
1. every member of a stereotyped group is seen as a rubber stamp of everyone else
in that group (individual differences obscured)
2. Stereotypes usually cannot be modified by contradictory evidence (wont change
hate-monger’s mind)
3. the person who accepts the validity of a nasty stereotype isn't simply trying to
make sense of his world - he is looking for convenient excuse to express hostility,
to attack and brutalize the people he despises
1.1.1. Justification (used to justify tragedies against
members of stigmatized groups)
1.1.2. Infantilization (“stayed in their place” and played
inferior role; women + some races)
1.1.3. Dehumanization (acceptable to kill an “animal” or
the “devil”)
1.1.4. Validation (increasingly, hatemongers find solace,
if not inspiration, in the humor, entertainment, music, and
politics that we share as people, in a growing culture of
hate that is being directed wholly toward the members of
our society)
Culture, Gang and Violence
Organizational Features of “Urban” Gangs:
3
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Document Summary

She will probably ask us to relate the black kings gang to what we learned about gangs, drugs, and prostitution in our notes, among other things. + how the prostitutes might have entered prostitution? hey i read this book last semester and have class notes on it, would y"all want me to post those at the bottom of this review? its like 7 pages Hate crime: definitions, siegel, 2004 - hate or bias crimes are violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group because the targets share a race, ethnic or religion characteristic. 2. 1. ex: people targeted jewish cemeteries and painted swastikas, technically a property crime but is considered hate b/c of swastikas: culture of hate. A person"s group affiliation continues to provide a basis for dehumanizing and insulting treatment. Hatred expressed in mass culture through art, music, religion, and humor. Young people more likely to commit hate crimes (<25 years old)

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