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Study Guide

CHE 201- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 12 pages long!)

12 pages150 viewsFall 2016

Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHE 201
Professor
Michael Aucott
Study Guide
Midterm

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TCNJ
CHE 201
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1
Chemistry
Central science; understanding it can facilitate the understanding of other sciences.
The study of matter and the changes it undergoes
Scientific method
Systematic approach to experimentation
Matter
Anything with mass that occupies space
Classification of matter
1. Substance
Form of matter with a constant composition and distinct properties
Can be elements or compounds
Elements
o Ca’t e separated into simpler substances by any chemical means (indivisible)
Elements form compounds (fixed/same composition)
o Elements COMBINE together to form compounds; these elements are called
constituent elements
o Substance composed of atoms of 2 or more elements chemically united in fixed
proportions.
o Ex, water H20.
o Copouds a’t e separated y ay physial properties (oilig, freezig,
filtering); only by chemical reactions.
2. Mixtures
2 or more substances that retain their distinct properties.
Do’t have a ostat opositio.
Homogenous mixture (solutions): same and uniform; ex, milk, soda.
Heterogeneous mixture: not uniform, visible distinction; ex, sand & iron.
Mixtures can be separated by physical means.
o States of matter
Solid & liquid: condensed phases- molecules are close to each other, little motion.
Liquid Gas: fluids- molecules are far apart
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Scientific Measurements
Quantitative properties: properties that CAN be measured; expressed using numbers
Qualitative properties: properties that does not require measurements
TABLE 1.2 Base SI Units
Base Quantity
Name of Unit
Symbol
Length
meter
m
Mass
kilogram
kg
Time
second
s
Electric current
ampere
A
Temperature
kelvin
K
Amount of substance
mole
mol
Mass: a measure of the amount of matter in an object.
Weight: force excreted by an object due to gravity.
Temperature: K= C+273.15, C= (Temp in F-32) * (5/9), F= (9/5) * (temp in C) + (32), -40 is = in C & F
Volume:
o Meter cubed, liter/cubic decimeter, milliliter/cubic centimeter.
Density
o D= M/V
TABLE 1.3 Prefixes Used with SI Units
Prefix
Symbol
Meaning
Example
Kilo-
k
1 × 103 (1,000)
1 kilometer (km) = 1 × 103 m
Centi-
c
1 × 10−2 (0.01)
1 centimeter (cm) = 1 ×10−2 m
Milli-
m
1 × 10−3 (0.001)
1 millimeter (mm) = 1 × 10−3 m
Micro-
μ
1 × 10−6 (0.000001)
1 microliter (μL) = 1 × 10−6 L
Nano-
n
1 × 10−9 (0.000000001)
1 nanosecond (ns) = 1 × 10−9 s
Pico-
p
1 × 10−12 (0.000000000001)
1 picogram (pg) = 1 × 10−12 g
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