[HIS 109] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (13 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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HIS 109
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1
The Ancient Near East-- Podnay
Archaeology and Environment
“Cradle of Civilization”
Mesopotamians invented 60 based units (seconds, min, degrees)
First laws
A lot of writings/buildings used clay, which was good because it did not decompose
Stratigraphy- allows archaeologists to place objects and buildings in time and space
All the origins of civilization will never be fully complete
“Cuneiform lands” the regions where cuneiform script written on clay tablets for the most common way
to communicate
Include: Mesopotamia, Syria, Elam, Anatolia
Had constant trading partners
Southern Mesopotamia had two rivers, Tigris and Euphrates
Didn’t seem to have suffered from from the rivers flooding, saw it as a blessing
East/West/North of southern Mesopotamia relied less on rivers but more on rain
Most of the cuneiform lands had no coastline
Southern Mesopotamia had dependable crops, salt, bitumen,wool but no metal ores
Syria was known as the “cedar mountain”
Anatolians had silver, copper, obsidian
Elam had copper, blue stones, tin, shells and gold
Buried their dead with goods
City of Uruk
Bigger than any community, enclosed by a city wall, 25,000 people
Goddess Inanna was the queen of the city, her temple was the most important structure
Proto-cuneiform, a script with signs for memory aid
The people of Uruk did not have a king, possibly priests were in charge?
Proto-cuneiform documents list numbers/nouns
Did not write anything creative or reflective
Scribes began to identify the people involved in transactions using pictures that sounded like their
name
Documents had no logical order to their signs
Cylinder seal-- a stone cylinder carved with a scene that produced endless patterns
People used seal to show involvement in a transaction and when shipping, if seal image was
broke into and who sent it
3500-2900 BCE Uruk period/ Uruk phenomenon/ Uruk revolution --- quantity over quality of products
Men worked in herding/shearing, women made clothes from wool
People traveled from southern mesopotamia to create new neighborhoods
Was this due to competition within towns to outdo another?
Akkadian Empire(9/12)
Sargon forged the worlds first empire
Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Umma, reaching the Persian Gulf
Built a new city, Akkad (gained wealth/luxury)
Became known as the “King of Akkad
Focused on outward trading/conquest
Placed his daughter (Enheduanna) as priest of the moon god (Nanna)
Sargon's grandson, King Naram-Sin conquered Elba
Third Dynasty of Ur
Various empires fromed when Akkadian Empire collapsed
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Ur-Namma created third dynasty of UR
Started as a subject of the King of Uruk, seized power of Ur
Ur-Namma was the first king to put laws in writing
Expansion of 3D of Ur in size and sophistication of temples/palaces
Were obsessively orderly
Laws designed to eliminate enmity, violence and cries for justice
Did Not state forbidden laws, instead each law started with a premises and a punishment
Most punishments were fines, not physical
Death penalty
Homicide
Rape of a virgin or another mans woman
Adultery by a married woman
Lawlessness
System of taxation
Paid in silver, goods, barley, flour, timber
Spread the collections throughout the year so kings had constant supplies
End of Ur
Mesopotamian cities reverted to state control
Rebellions, invasions, military campaigns, poor harvests, climate change
Followed by an era called Old Babylonian Period
Babylonian Period
Shamshi-Addu king of Mari
Demoted to son of King Zimri Lin because lost control of western Mari
Was not mentioned in Itur-Asdu’s King list
Hammurabi
Larsa and Eshuanna
Build large stone image of him praying to god SHamash with 275 laws on the same
statute\laws were concerned with property ownership, inheritance, agriculture,
marriage, divorce NOT violent crimes
Fines were often fines
People recognized the value of a written document and its permanent record
(goes into detail about what each part of the documentation described)
Babylonia rebelled after Hammurabi's death
‘Kings of kassite dynasty took over control of babylonia
The Ancient Mesopotamian City
FF
The Ancient Near East
Gilgamesh-
King of Uruk who tyrannizes his people
Gods send Enkidu to kill him
To weaken the powerful Enkidu, Gilgamesh sends a prostitute to seduce Enkidu
She has sex with him and gives him goods
Enkidu still wants to fight Gilgamesh, but Enkidu has since been weakened by the prostitute
During the fight, they begin to admire each other's strength, Enkidu accepts gilgamesh's strength and
they become friends
They fight Humbaba (guardian of Cedar Forest)
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