[SPE 203] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 15 pages long Study Guide!

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SPE 203
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 2- Cognitive and Linguistic Development
Cognitive development- development of in increasingly sophisticated thinking, reasoning and language
Four principles of development-
1. Sequence of development is somewhat predictable
Many universals marked by developmental milestones
2. Children develop at different rates
3. Development is marked by periods of relatively rapid growth (spurts) and slower growth (plateaus)
4. Heredity and environment interact on development
Maturation- gradual, genetically controlled process of physical advancements
Nature vs nurture--- can not detangle interactions
Sensitive periods- time periods during which certain environmental conditions are important for development
Children can choose their environments and actively think, act and alter their environment
Bronfenbrenner's Theory of Multi Layer Environment Influence
Family
Neighborhood and community
State and country
These layers impact culture- behaviors and beliefs of a long standing group
Environments are dynamic systems encompassing mutually influencing variables
that are in constant flux
Macrosystem- culture, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race
Exosystem- friends of family, neighbors, mass media, social welfare systems,
community
Mesosystem- relationships between the microsystems (a child neglected by parents
may struggle with self-esteem)
Microsystem- direct environment (family, friends, classmates, teachers, close
neighbors)
Brain-
Neurons- cells in brain that transmit messages to other neurons
Cell body
Dendrites
Axon
Myelin sheath---helps move impulses faster
Glial cells- supports neurons and brain functioning
Synapses- spaces between neurons
Neurotransmitters- chemical substance shared between neurons when released
Cortex- complex, conscious thinking
Top and side of brain
Thick, lumpy
Two hemispheres
Left- language and logical thinking
Right- visual and spatial tasks
Prefrontal cortex- attention, planning, decision making, coordination
Learning involves changes in neurons and synapses
Synaptogenesis- process in brain development where new synapses form
Synaptic Pruning- previously formed synapses wither away
Myelination- formation of myelin around axons
Brain remains adaptable throughout life- plasticity
Early childhood is a crucial period in learning
Piaget's Theory
Clinical method- adult asks a question, child asks question, tailoring questions to the previous ones
Class inclusion- recognition that an object belongs to a particular category and its subcategories
Biological background
Factors that determine cognitive growth:
Maturation
Social interactions
Interactions
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equilibrium
Piaget's Assumptions
Children are active and motivated learners
Children construct rather than absorb knowledge
Pull experiences together into an integrated view
Constructivism- construct own beliefs and understandings from experience
Schemes- groups of similar actions or thoughts
Children learn new things from assimilation and accommodations
Assimilation- dealing with an event in a way with existing knowledge
Accommodation- modify an existing scheme OR form a new scheme
Interactions with one's environment is essential for cognitive development
Process of equilibrium promotes progression toward increasingly complex thought
Equilibrium- being able to address new events with existing one
Disequilibrium- mental discomfort when they can't make sense of what they see
Equilibration- moving from equilibrium(know) to disequilibrium (don't know)
Children think in different ways at different ages
Children progress through the stages in a hierarch
Formal operations egocentrism- separates one’s own logical abstractions from the perspectives of others
Piaget underestimated thinking capabilities of elementary students and overestimated what adolescents can do
Neo-Piagetian- combines elements of Piaget with more contemporary research
Research supports sequence.
Research does not support ages.
Knowledge, experience, and culture affect reasoning abilities.
Cognitive development may not be universally stage-like
Piaget did not seek unique achievement but rather identified four familiar universal stages of development
Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
Believe adults in society foster children cognitive development
Sociocultural- perspective emphasizing the importance of society and culture in learning and development
Vygotsky's Basic Assumptions
Informal conversations and formal school, adults convey to children the way in which their culture responds to world
Share the meanings to attached object or experience
Every culture passes along physical and cognitive tools that make daily living more productive and efficient
Cognitive tools
Thought and language become interdependent after a few years
Self-talk- talking to oneself out loud to guide through a task
Inner speech- talking to oneself mental
Complex mental processes begin as a social activity and gradually evolve into internal mental activities that children use
independently
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