PSYC 10213- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 47 pages long!)

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Published on 30 Nov 2017
School
TCU
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 10213
Professor
TCU
PSYC 10213
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Research Ethics
What ae ethics?
o Rules of behavior based on ideas about what is morally good and bad
How do you behave ethically in research?
o Research should, therefore be designed to minimize the potential for harm
In the past, ethics were not a priority
Little Albert Video (1920)
o John B. Watson
o Classical conditioning
o Presented Albert with objects he was initially not afraid of
Fire, monkey, dog, rabbit, white rat
o Whenever albert reached for the rat a low bang was rung
At fist did’t c
Cried the second time and ran away
Generalization: Began to run away from anything that reminded him of
the rat (furry things)
Feared even Santa Claus
Had withdrawal-went home and came back later and had same reactions
o Grew up still with fears and committed suicide as an adult
Stanford Prison Experiment Video (1971)
o Created Locke Prison
o Dr. Philip Zimbardo-played the warden
o Abu Grahib-Iraqi prisoners being tortured
o Picked male college students to be part of prison experiment: chose some to be
guards and some to be prisoners
o Had a number to replace their name
o Guards felt awkward until one took it too far
o Prisoners rebelled
o Guards began to see them as dangerous prisoners
o Human nature transformed rapidly in an extreme situation
o One prisoner 8612 had an emotional breakdown
o Guards escalated their power
o By 4th day, things got sexual
o Prisoners kept breaking down
Grisly Example of Good Science Gone Bad
o Antonio Egas Moniz (1949)
Portuguese neurologist
Lobotomy
Cut open front lobe of your brain
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Backdrop of many unethical treatment procedures for mental
illness
Nobel Prize
Lessons
o Everything should be empirically based
o Ethics must be monitored by third party
o Ca’t get caught up o doig oe thig
Stop seeing the after effects
Look at overall impacts
How Research Should Be Done
o 1979-US Department of Health and Human Services published the Belmont
Report describing the Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of
Human Subjects of Research
o Ethical Principles
Respect for Persons
Respect fo a idividual’s agec. And protection for those with
less agency (mental disability)
Beneficence
Obligation to do no harm, and maximize possible benefits and
minimize possible harm
Justice
Equal share of the burden and benefit provided by research
o The Application of the Ethical Principles
Informed Consent
Participant are informed, understand the information, and
participate voluntarily
Assessment of Risks and Benefits
Importance of research and potential benefits are weighted
against potential risks
Selection of Subjects
Forer Effect (Barnum Effect like the cicus…liteall)
o Bertram R. Forer (1948)
o Individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that
supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are, in fat, vague and general
enough to apply to a wide range of people
o Explains why people fall for:
Astrology (zodiac signs), fortune telling, graphology, and some types of
personality tests
Clever Hans
o Taught one of his stallions in human studies
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Document Summary

Research ethics: what a(cid:396)e (cid:862)ethics(cid:863), rules of behavior based on ideas about what is morally good and bad, how do you behave ethically in research, research should, therefore be designed to minimize the potential for harm. Report describing the ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of. Human subjects of research: ethical principles, respect for persons, respect fo(cid:396) a(cid:374) i(cid:374)dividual"s age(cid:374)c(cid:455). And protection for those with less agency (mental disability: beneficence, obligation to do no harm, and maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harm. Justice: equal share of the burden and benefit provided by research, the application of the ethical principles. Informed consent: participant are informed, understand the information, and participate voluntarily, assessment of risks and benefits. Importance of research and potential benefits are weighted against potential risks: selection of subjects, forer effect (barnum effect like the ci(cid:396)cus lite(cid:396)all(cid:455), bertram r. forer (1948)