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Chapter 13.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1001
Professor
Smutzer
Semester
Spring

Description
Chap 13 Important Terms o Genes­ linear stretches of DNA that generally encode proteins o Crossing over­ allows genetic recombination among homologous chromosomes  (prophase 1) o Autosomes­ chromosomes 1­22 (non­sex)  o Hemizygous­ a diploid individual who has only one allele of a gene rather than  the usual 2 (most of the X chromosome on males) o Genotype­ particular genes and individual carries o Phenotype­ individuals observable traits (can’t always determine genotype by  observing phenotype) o Alleles arise by genetic mutation, can be dominant, recessive, or co­dominant o X and Y are homologous chromosomes! o Heterozygous for 2 traits = 9:3:3:1 1. Mendel • Crossed true breeding (homozygous) purple and white flowered pea plants • Found evidence of how parents transmit genes to offspring • Dominant always covered recessive • Correns­ botanist/geneticist who discovered principles of heredity, discovered  non­mendelian inheritance in 4 o’clock plants • Law of Segregation: two alleles of a gene segregate into 2 gametes during  meiosis  ­ CC parent only produces C gametes etc.  • Law of Independent Assortment: members of each pair of homologous  chromosomes are sorted into gametes at random during meiosis • Traits (genes) must on different chromosomes for Mendel’s laws to hold  2. Incomplete Dominance  • A blending of phenotypes • Heterozygous genotype creates an intermediate phenotype (Red + White =  pink) • Neither gene is dominant, both contribute to expression • Each genotype corresponds to one phenotype 3. Penetrance (expressivity) • Describes the extent to which the properties controlled by a gene (phenotype)  will be expressed • Incomplete penetrance: someone who carries at least one copy of a dominant  allele or two copies of a recessive a
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