BIOL 4376 Study Guide - Final Guide: Kidney Transplantation, Pulmonary Artery, Bicarbonate

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Published on 29 Jul 2020
School
Temple University
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 4376
1
Definition: presence of decreased kidney function (GFR < 60mL/min/1.73m2) or kidney
damage for >/= 3 months
Risk factors:
Diabetes mellitus
Obesity
HTN
Advanced age
Smoking
Consequences:
High morbidity and mortality rates, economic burden to health-care systems from
hospitalizations and high cost of chronic dialysis and kidney transplantation
Lecture 5
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG)
It’s all about… Balance
Optimal organ function required normal pH (7.35-7.45)
Cellular metabolism produces acidic substances that must be excreted to prevent acid
accumulation
Lungs, kidney and a buffer system allow the body to maintain acid-base balance
Pharmacists use the ABG test to assess a patient’s acid-base balance
Lungs’ Roles in Maintaining Acid-Base Balance
Oxygenate the blood
1. Inspired oxygen diffuses from alveoli into capillary blood and is bound to
hemoglobin in RBCs
2. Oxygen is carried throughout the body via arterial system
3. Oxygen is released into tissues for utilization
Regulate CO2, the body’s primary volatile acid
1. Deoxygenated blood returned from tissues to the right side of the heart
2. Pumped through pulmonary artery to lungs
3. CO2 diffuses from blood into alveoli of lungs
4. Lungs excrete CO2 in exhaled air
Kidneys’ Role in Maintaining Acid-Base Balance
1. Regulate concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO3-) (basic/alkalotic) by reabsorbing filtered
bicarbonate
2. Excrete acids produced by the body
Carbonic Acid/Bicarbonate Buffer System’s Role in maintaining aic-dbase balance
Carbonic acid and bicarbonate exist in equilibrium with hydrogen ions
HCO3- + H+ <-> H2CO3
Example of buffer system at work:
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Document Summary

Definition: presence of decreased kidney function (gfr < 60ml/min/1. 73m2) or kidney damage for >/= 3 months. High morbidity and mortality rates, economic burden to health-care systems from hospitalizations and high cost of chronic dialysis and kidney transplantation. Optimal organ function required normal ph (7. 35-7. 45) Cellular metabolism produces acidic substances that must be excreted to prevent acid accumulation. Lungs, kidney and a buffer system allow the body to maintain acid-base balance. Pharmacists use the abg test to assess a patient"s acid-base balance. Oxygenate the blood: inspired oxygen diffuses from alveoli into capillary blood and is bound to hemoglobin in rbcs, oxygen is carried throughout the body via arterial system, oxygen is released into tissues for utilization. Kidneys" role in maintaining acid-base balance: regulate concentrations of bicarbonate (hco3 bicarbonate, excrete acids produced by the body. Carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system"s role in maintaining aic-dbase balance. Carbonic acid and bicarbonate exist in equilibrium with hydrogen ions.