BIOL 4376 Study Guide - Final Guide: Metabolic Alkalosis, Metabolic Acidosis, Hypochloremia

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Published on 29 Jul 2020
School
Temple University
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 4376
1
Clinical
Manifestation
Longer action potential in cardiac cells
Disturbances in cardiac rhythm (“arrhythmias”)
Chloride (Cl-)
Description: principal extracellular anion
Reference range: 95-105 mEq/L
Quick facts:
Passive role in maintenance of fluid balance and acid-base balance
Chloride values are useful in identifying fluid or acid-base balance disorders
Kidneys are primary organs involved in regulation
Exchanged at proximal tubules for bicarbonate ions to maintain
intracellular electropotential gradient
Passively follows Na+ and water throughout the rest of the nephron
Abnormalities
Low Chloride
High Chloride
Terminology: hypochloremia
Common causes:
Metabolic alkalosis: as bicarbonate
increases in the kidneys, Cl levels
decrease via excretion
GI losses (vomiting, diarrhea)
Terminology: hyperchloremia
Common causes:
Metabolic acidosis: as bicarbonate
decreases kidneys compensate for
bicarbonate loss by increasing Cl
reabsorption
Dehydration: causes increase in water
and Na reabsorption
Total Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Total CO2 reflects bicarbonate level
Primary role: helps assess acid-base balance
Reference range: 22-28 mEq/L
Common causes of increased total CO2
Metabolic alkalosis
Common causes of decreased total CO2
Metabolic acidosis
Minerals
Calcium (Ca2+)
Quick facts:
~99% located in bone and ~1% in extracellular fluid
Regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorous, vitamin D and calcitonin
Roles:
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Document Summary

Passive role in maintenance of fluid balance and acid-base balance. Chloride values are useful in identifying fluid or acid-base balance disorders. Kidneys are primary organs involved in regulation. Exchanged at proximal tubules for bicarbonate ions to maintain intracellular electropotential gradient. Passively follows na+ and water throughout the rest of the nephron. Metabolic alkalosis: as bicarbonate increases in the kidneys, cl levels decrease via excretion. Metabolic acidosis: as bicarbonate decreases kidneys compensate for bicarbonate loss by increasing cl reabsorption. Dehydration: causes increase in water and na reabsorption. ~99% located in bone and ~1% in extracellular fluid. Regulated by parathyroid hormone (pth), phosphorous, vitamin d and calcitonin. Muscle: calcium binds to troponin to trop it form inhibiting the interaction of actin and myosin muscle contraction. Cardiac tissue: involved in action potential muscle contraction. Low ca2+ concentration, high parathyroid hormone (pht) Increases calcium reabsorption (kidneys and gi tract) and phosphate excretion.