BIOL 4376 Study Guide - Final Guide: Coronary Artery Disease, Statin, Familial Hypercholesterolemia

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Published on 29 Jul 2020
School
Temple University
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 4376
1
Lipid Panel
What are lipids?
Cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids
Roles include: cell membrane formation and hormone synthesis
Lipoproteins: transport lipids around body; particles with surfaces that consist of
phospholipid, free cholesterol, protein and cores of triglyceride and cholesterol esters
3 Major classes of lipoproteins:
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)
Lipid Panel
Consists of: total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides
Utility: diagnosis of hyperlipidemia (HLD)
High total cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, or low HDL
cholesterol
Increases risk of coronary heart disease, MI, and stroke
Procedure: patient must fast for at least 9-12 hours prior (non-fasting can falsely elevate
triglyceride levels)
Total Cholesterol
Important component of cell membranes; necessary for synthesis of hormones and bile
acids
Normal: < 200 mg/dL
High: > 240 mg/dL
Common causes of hypercholesterolemia:
Obesity
Familial hypercholesterolemia
Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fat
Common drug-induced causes: atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, risperidone),
thiazide diuretics (HCTZ)
Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
Major cholesterol transport protein which comprises 60-70% of total serum cholesterol
Considered “bad” cholesterol; major target of HMG Co-A reductase inhibitor (statin)
therapy
Causes of high LDL: same causes as high total cholesterol
Normal: < 100 mg/dL
High: 160-189 mg/dL
Very high: > 190 mg/dL
High-density Lipoprotein
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Document Summary

Roles include: cell membrane formation and hormone synthesis. Lipoproteins: transport lipids around body; particles with surfaces that consist of phospholipid, free cholesterol, protein and cores of triglyceride and cholesterol esters. Consists of: total cholesterol, ldl, hdl, triglycerides. High total cholesterol, high ldl cholesterol, high triglycerides, or low hdl cholesterol. Increases risk of coronary heart disease, mi, and stroke. Procedure: patient must fast for at least 9-12 hours prior (non-fasting can falsely elevate triglyceride levels) Important component of cell membranes; necessary for synthesis of hormones and bile acids. Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fat. Common drug-induced causes: atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, risperidone), thiazide diuretics (hctz) Major cholesterol transport protein which comprises 60-70% of total serum cholesterol. Considered bad cholesterol; major target of hmg co-a reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy. Causes of high ldl: same causes as high total cholesterol. Responsible for transport of 20-30% of serum cholesterol. Removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver.