[CJ 1001] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (60 pages long!)

171 views60 pages

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

Temple
CJ 1001
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 60 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 60 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
1
(In Class Notes 9/21/2016)
Victim experience in CJ system
CJ focused on offender, relatively insensitive to V, improvements within last 20 years,
e.g.
2004 Justice for All act (FED):
o rt to reasonable protection from accused;
o reasonable notice of court proceedings, release or escape;
o not to be excluded from court hearings;
o tp be heard re: release, plea, sentencing parole;
o confer w/ fed pros; full, timely restit; free from areas delay, trtmt-fairness and
respect.
Role of Victim in crime
Fail to protect self, e.g leave keys in car;
Provoke or entice offender;
Refuse to prosecute acquaintance.
75% of car owners- no alarm;
30% unlocked doors, 10% sometimes leave keys inside.
What causes crime: Theory
Theories focus on offenders rather than factors, e.g. economy
Until 18th C, thought devil made people offend- differentiation between good and bad
people, so few rts, little chance to defend, confessions thru torture, most offenses were
capital crimes
Two major schools of thought:
o Classical
o Positivist.
Classical Theory (Punishment)
1764: Ceasare Beccaria:
o 1. Crime behave is rationaldecide whether you want to commit a crime or not
o most have potential to commit;
o after weighing costs-benefits;
o fear of punishment keeps people in check
o so need certainty (believe that you are going to get caught), severity, speed;
o punishment should fir crime, not person who committed it;
o CJ sys must be predictable, laws, and punishments known.
To weight the costs and benefits.
Popularity declined in 19th C because no explanation for science or differences
Positivism
Mid 19th science used to study body, mind environment why commit crime, how to
rehab
Key features:
o Human behavior controlled by phys, mental, social, factors, not free will.
o Criminals different from non -criminals.
o Science can uncover cause and treat deviance.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 60 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
2
Positivism is foundation for: certain things outside act on them to influence to commit crime
Biological, psychological, sociological theories.
Biological: Lombroso-
o Certain people are born criminals.
o Criminogenic traits include strong canine teeth, huge jaws, high cheekbones
Beginning 20th C, leaned towards inherited traits affecting intelligence:
Pathological urges from mentally defective ancestors
Studies: 1875, 1902- Jukes and Kallicak families. 1000 descendants of Ada Jukes: 280
paupers, 60 thieves, 7 murderers, 140 crimes. Similar study of Kallicaks- taken seriously,
resulting in many states requiring repeat offenders sterilized.
1942, skinner V Ohio, S
Contemporary biological theory (Treatment)
Biological factors predispose some to crime:
genetic make-up, body type, IQ, may outweigh social factors as predictor.
Research findings in nutrition, neurology, genetics seem to support these ideas:
2 stud isolated a gee that helps predit the aused head ijuries, tuors,
chemical imbalances and conditions such as ADHD: prone to Aggressive/impulsive
behavior-
issues compounded if poor, not diagnosed or treated.
Recent studies connect vitamin deficiencies, nutritional issues, lead paint consumption
with delinquency.
Policy implications: identify and treat, selective incarceration, intensive supv, limit
environmental harms, better nutrition for poor. Probl: predisposition not definite
prediction- over inclusive.
Psychological explanation (Therapy, rehabilitation)
Criminality caused by mental condition, personality disturbance, limited intellect.
Maudsley: Criminals morally insane, innate, crime as outlet or go insane.
Freuds psychoanalytic theory: unconscious forces and drives: Id sex drive, Ego relates
desire to behavior, supergo like conscience judges
Psychopathology
Psycho or sociopath, antisocial personality- no impulse control, cant learn, from
experience, no emotions.
o 1940s several high profile violent sex crimes led to sexual psychopath laws-put
offenders in institutions. Widely criticized because how do you measure
emotional factors and identify the crime prone?
Policy Implications
Treatment of personality disorders, punish learned illegal behavior:
1940s-70s psychotherapy, group behavior modif
but past 3 decades: used to justify confining sex offenders even after served their time.
Belief psych issues underlying are imposs to cure, many state legis authorized institution
after sentence served, s Ct fount no viol of double jeopardy.
Sociological Theories
Belief that external factors cause crime
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 60 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class