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Temple University
Communication Sciences and Disorders
CSCD 2201

Communication Sciences Research Methods 2201 - Study terms – Fall Test 1 Scientific method: a way to ask and answer specific questions by making observations and doing experiments • Hypothesis • Prediction • Experiment • Test model • Repeat experiment • Analyze and publish results Pseudoscience: popular distortions of scientific knowledge and procedures, which appear on the surface to be scientific, but lack critical scientific procedures. Evidence based practice: use of interventions that are supported by systematic empirical research providing statistically significant effectiveness of a given treatment for a specific problem. o Strongly encouraged by ASHA and insurance companies  Needed to prove to an insurance company what is needed  Be up to date with medicine  Many professions have histories where practice was based on loose bodies of knowledge *High impact journals are more reliable Citation format and components: APA 1. Author 2. Year 3. Title 4. Journal 5. Issue/volume 6. Pages 7. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) (if available) 8. Publisher structure of a research paper: o Title st o Author – 1 most research o Abstract – summary of paper, results, and interpretation o Introduction – provides the background and sets the tone of the paper. Also, author most show knowledge of the field  Statement of the problem (question)  Hypothesis • If… then statement • MUST BE TESTABLE  Review of literature • Shares results of closely related experiments • Establishes the importance of the study o Methods – Variables  Subjects  Stimuli  Technique or design • Focus on dependent variable o Variable that is being measured o Independent variable – what the dependent variable is related to • Account for extraneous variables • Also, must be able to reproduce, so must be detailed o Analysis – Statistics, describes the results, null hypothesis  Relate the analysis to the hypothesis that is being tested • What is statistically significant  Review literature o Discussion  Weaknesses of study  Significance of the study  Should be broad for people other than your specific scope of practice  Note whether the refinements, revisions or extensions may have significance  Relate significance to issues of concern to potential audiences o References  APA style • Medical journal – o Senior director is last • Regular APA style st nd o 1 person = most work/research 2 person = who contributes intellect Nuremberg Code: i. Carl Clauberg – techniques for sterilizing women without their permission, knowledge, or consent during WWII. 1. Resulted in Nuremberg Code a. Set of research ethics principles for human experimentation, which made VOLUNTARY consent absolutely necessary National Research Act of 1974: 1. Created the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research 2. Identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of human subjects and to develop guidelines that assure the research is in accordance to the principles. Belmont Report:(1978)- attempts to summarize the basic ethical principles identified by the commission; important historical document in the field of medical ethics; prompted in part by problems arising from the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932- 1972) Three key principles: Respect for the persons: protecting the autonomy of all people and treating them with courtesy and respect and allowing for informed consent. Researchers must be truthful and conduct no deception. Beneficence: the philosophy of “Do not harm” while maximizing benefits for the research project and minimizing risks to the research subjects. Justice: ensuring reasonable, non-exploitative, and well-considered procedures are administered fairly- the fair distribution of costs and benefits to potential research participants- and equally Institutional review board (IRB): Health and Human Services *Submit research proposals to the IRB, must comply with HIPPA too • Must have at least 5 members • Should have members who are familiar with vulnerable populations • Men and women • Must not be all the same profession • Must contain one scientist and one non-scientist Aspirational Goals (APA) • Beneficence: the philosophy of “Do not harm” while maximizing benefits for the research project and minimizing risks to the research subjects. • Nonmaleficence: Acting to promote the welfare of the people you deal with • Fidelity and Responsibility: Act professionally in ways that support the discipline and benefit the people they work with. • Integrity Neuroethics: What if a brain tumor is discovered during non-clinical research participation. What do you do? Informed Consent: o Purpose o Procedures o Risks and discomforts o Benefits o Alternative to participation o Confidentiality o Who to talk to for more information o Refusal or withdrawal statement o Injury statement o Consent statement o Signatures Assent: o Assent from parents fothpeothe <18 o Children over 12 (5 or 8 grade reading level) Cost-benefit analysis: Evaluation of the risks that participants face in a study (i.e. the cost) vs the relative potential benefit of the outcome of the investigation (the benefit). Authorship: (ASHA’s Research Ethics Position Statement) ­All and only those involved in the project get credit –No “honorary/gift” or “ghost” authorships  Misconduct • Falsification: manipulating data • Fabrication: making up data or results from an imaginary experiment • Plagiarism: use of another person’s ideas, processes, results or words – Proposing, performing, reviewing or reporting research • Self‐ plagiarism: Publication of the same content by the same author (publishing your same work in two different journals) Conflicts of Interest: (ASHA’s Research Ethics Position Statement) ­Full disclosure! You have to put a footnote in the paper! –Personal, financial, or other external incentives that might be perceived as biasing –When the funding source of a study might bias the research (e.g. drug company). –Have to put it in a cover letter when you submit your paper. Desensitizing: refers to the process of reducing any stress or other negative feelings that might have been experienced in the session Debriefing: tell participants why you used deception, answers participant’s questions and fills them in about what the purpose of the study was, and what hypothesis is being tested. Dehoaxing: have to tell people if you use deception that they were fooled HIPAA: Health Info Privacy Act • The HIPAA Privacy Rule provides federal protections for individually identifiable health information held by covered entities and their business associates and gives patients an array of rights with respect to that information. At the same time, the Privacy Rule is balanced so that it permits the disclosure of health information needed for patient care and other important purposes. • The Security Rule specifies a series of administrative, physical, and technical safeguards for covered entities and their business associates to use to assure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of electronic protected health information. Anonymity: practice of maintaining records so that nobody can identify which person is associated with which dataset Confidentiality: practice that nobody outside a research project has access to data that can be identified with a specific individual. Occam’s razor: law of parsimony, when competing hypotheses are equal in other respects, select the hypothesis with the fewest entities, while still sufficiently answering the question *it’s only the best if it has the same explanatory power as the complicated answer Inductive reasoning: Specific instance to general theory Deductive reasoning: General theory to specific instance Type I error: probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. Type II error: probability of NOT rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false. Independent variable: Variable the experimenter manipulates Dependent variable: A variable that receives stimulus and measured for the effect the treatment has had upon it Control variable – Frequently used by researchers to rule out the influence of extraneous variables. Subjects who are in the control group do not receive the independent variable, while those in the experimental group do. Levels of evidence -- Typically, research evidence is classified according to levels based on the type and quality of research – Class III, the lowest level of evidence, is evidence provided by expert opinion, case studies, case reports, and studies with historical controls – Class II evidence is evidence provided by at least one or a better designed observational, clinical study with concurrent controls, that is, single case control or cohort control studies. – Class I, the highest level of evidence, is provided by at least one well designed randomized controlled clinical trial Meta-analysis: allows researchers to statistically combine the results of several studies to get a sense of how powerful the effect is Levels of measurement -- o Ordinal: cla
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