Communication Sciences Research Methods 2201 - Study terms – Fall Test 1
Scientific method: a way to ask and answer specific questions by making
observations and doing experiments
• Test model
• Repeat experiment
• Analyze and publish results
Pseudoscience: popular distortions of scientific knowledge and procedures, which
appear on the surface to be scientific, but lack critical scientific procedures.
Evidence based practice: use of interventions that are supported by systematic
empirical research providing statistically significant effectiveness of a given
treatment for a specific problem.
o Strongly encouraged by ASHA and insurance companies
Needed to prove to an insurance company what is needed
Be up to date with medicine
Many professions have histories where practice was based on
loose bodies of knowledge
*High impact journals are more reliable
Citation format and components:
7. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) (if available)
structure of a research paper:
o Author – 1 most research
o Abstract – summary of paper, results, and interpretation
o Introduction – provides the background and sets the tone of the paper. Also, author most show knowledge of the field
Statement of the problem (question)
• If… then statement
• MUST BE TESTABLE
Review of literature
• Shares results of closely related experiments
• Establishes the importance of the study
o Methods – Variables
Technique or design
• Focus on dependent variable
o Variable that is being measured
o Independent variable – what the dependent
variable is related to
• Account for extraneous variables
• Also, must be able to reproduce, so must be detailed
o Analysis – Statistics, describes the results, null hypothesis
Relate the analysis to the hypothesis that is being tested
• What is statistically significant
Weaknesses of study
Significance of the study
Should be broad for people other than your specific scope of
Note whether the refinements, revisions or extensions may have
Relate significance to issues of concern to potential audiences
• Medical journal –
o Senior director is last
• Regular APA style
nd o 1 person = most work/research
2 person = who contributes intellect
i. Carl Clauberg – techniques for sterilizing women without their
permission, knowledge, or consent during WWII.
1. Resulted in Nuremberg Code
a. Set of research ethics principles for human
experimentation, which made VOLUNTARY consent absolutely necessary
National Research Act of 1974:
1. Created the National Commission for the Protection of
Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
2. Identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the
conduct of human subjects and to develop guidelines
that assure the research is in accordance to the
Belmont Report:(1978)- attempts to summarize the basic ethical principles
identified by the commission; important historical document in the field of medical
ethics; prompted in part by problems arising from the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-
Three key principles:
Respect for the persons: protecting the autonomy of all people and treating them
with courtesy and respect and allowing for informed consent. Researchers must be
truthful and conduct no deception.
Beneficence: the philosophy of “Do not harm” while maximizing benefits for the
research project and minimizing risks to the research subjects.
Justice: ensuring reasonable, non-exploitative, and well-considered procedures are
administered fairly- the fair distribution of costs and benefits to potential research
participants- and equally
Institutional review board (IRB): Health and Human Services
*Submit research proposals to the IRB, must comply with HIPPA too
• Must have at least 5 members
• Should have members who are familiar with vulnerable populations
• Men and women
• Must not be all the same profession
• Must contain one scientist and one non-scientist
Aspirational Goals (APA)
• Beneficence: the philosophy of “Do not harm” while maximizing benefits for
the research project and minimizing risks to the research subjects.
• Nonmaleficence: Acting to promote the welfare of the people you deal with
• Fidelity and Responsibility: Act professionally in ways that support the
discipline and benefit the people they work with.
Neuroethics: What if a brain tumor is discovered during non-clinical research
participation. What do you do?
o Procedures o Risks and discomforts
o Alternative to participation
o Who to talk to for more information
o Refusal or withdrawal statement
o Injury statement
o Consent statement
o Assent from parents fothpeothe <18
o Children over 12 (5 or 8 grade reading level)
Cost-benefit analysis: Evaluation of the risks that participants face in a study (i.e. the
cost) vs the relative potential benefit of the outcome of the investigation (the benefit).
Authorship: (ASHA’s Research Ethics Position Statement)
All and only those involved in the project get credit
–No “honorary/gift” or “ghost” authorships
• Falsification: manipulating data
• Fabrication: making up data or results from an imaginary experiment
• Plagiarism: use of another person’s ideas, processes, results or words
– Proposing, performing, reviewing or reporting research
• Self‐ plagiarism: Publication of the same content by the same author (publishing
your same work in two different journals)
Conflicts of Interest: (ASHA’s Research Ethics Position Statement)
Full disclosure! You have to put a footnote in the paper!
–Personal, financial, or other external incentives that might be perceived as biasing
–When the funding source of a study might bias the research (e.g. drug company).
–Have to put it in a cover letter when you submit your paper.
Desensitizing: refers to the process of reducing any stress or other negative feelings
that might have been experienced in the session
Debriefing: tell participants why you used deception, answers participant’s questions
and fills them in about what the purpose of the study was, and what hypothesis is
Dehoaxing: have to tell people if you use deception that they were fooled
HIPAA: Health Info Privacy Act
• The HIPAA Privacy Rule provides federal protections for individually identifiable
health information held by covered entities and their business associates and
gives patients an array of rights with respect to that information. At the same time,
the Privacy Rule is balanced so that it permits the disclosure of health information
needed for patient care and other important purposes.
• The Security Rule specifies a series of administrative, physical, and technical
safeguards for covered entities and their business associates to use to assure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of electronic protected health information.
Anonymity: practice of maintaining records so that nobody can identify which person is
associated with which dataset
Confidentiality: practice that nobody outside a research project has access to data that can be
identified with a specific individual.
Occam’s razor: law of parsimony, when competing hypotheses are equal in other
respects, select the hypothesis with the fewest entities, while still sufficiently
answering the question
*it’s only the best if it has the same explanatory power as the complicated answer
Inductive reasoning: Specific instance to general theory
Deductive reasoning: General theory to specific instance
Type I error: probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.
Type II error: probability of NOT rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false.
Independent variable: Variable the experimenter manipulates
Dependent variable: A variable that receives stimulus and measured for the effect the
treatment has had upon it
– Frequently used by researchers to rule out the influence of extraneous
variables. Subjects who are in the control group do not receive the
independent variable, while those in the experimental group do.
Levels of evidence -- Typically, research evidence is classified according to levels
on the type and quality of research
– Class III, the lowest level of evidence, is evidence provided by
expert opinion, case studies, case reports, and studies with
– Class II evidence is evidence provided by at least one or a better
designed observational, clinical study with concurrent controls, that is, single case
control or cohort control studies.
– Class I, the highest level of evidence, is provided by at least one
well designed randomized controlled clinical trial
Meta-analysis: allows researchers to statistically combine the results of several
studies to get a sense of how powerful the effect is
Levels of measurement --
o Ordinal: cla