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Temple University
Communication Sciences and Disorders
CSCD 2201

Communication Sciences Research Methods 2201 - Study terms – Fall Test 1 Scientific method: a way to ask and answer specific questions by making observations and doing experiments. • Ask a Question • Do Background Research • Construct a Hypothesis • Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment • Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion • Communicate Your Results Pseudoscience: popular distortions of scientific knowledge and procedures, which appear on the surface to be scientific, but lack critical scientific procedures. Evidence based practice: preferential use of those interventions that are supported by systematic empirical research providing statistically significant effectiveness of a given treatment for a specific problem. o Strongly encouraged by ASHA and insurance companies  Needed to prove to an insurance company what is needed  Be up to date with medicine  Many professions have histories where practice was based on loose bodies of knowledge *High impact journals, ones that are highly influential in a certain field, are more reliable Citation format and components: APA 1. Author 2. Year 3. Title 4. Journal 5. Issue/volume 6. Pages 7. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) (if available) 8. Publisher structure of a research paper: o Title st o Author – 1 most research o Abstract – summary of paper, results, and interpretation o Introduction – provides the background and sets the tone of the paper. Also, author must show knowledge of the field  Statement of the problem • Broad question • Specific question • Hypothesis  Hypothesis • If… then statement • Statement allows to predict • MUST BE TESTABLE • Generally based on previous observations or extensions of sci. theories  Review of literature • Shares results of closely related experiments • Relates study to the larger, ongoing dialogue in the lit. • Fill in gaps and extends prior studies • Establishes the importance of the study o Methods – Dep/Ind variables  Subjects • Who was recruited, how were they recruited, what happened?  Stimuli  Technique or design • Focus on dependent variable o Variable that is being measured – number is quantifiable o Independent variable – what the dep is related to • Account for extraneous variables • Also, must be able to reproduce, so must be detailed o Analysis – Statistics, describes the results, null hypothesis  Relate the analysis to the hypothesis that is being tested • What is statistically significant  Review literature o Discussion  Weaknesses of study  Significance of the study  To theory  To larger question • Indicate how your research will advance knowledge in your field of study  Should be broad for people other than your specific scope of practice  Note whether the refinements, revisions or extensions may have either substantive, theoretical, or methodological significance  Relate significance to issues of concern to potential audiences o References  APA style • Medical journal – st o 1 person = o Senior director is last • Regular APA style st nd o 1 person = most work/research 2 person = who contributes intellect • Nuremberg Code: i. Carl Clauberg – techniques for sterilizing women without their permission, knowledge, or consent during WWII. 1. Resulted in Nuremberg Code a. Set of research ethics principles for human experimentation, which made VOLUNTARY consent absolutely necessary National Research Act of 1974: 1. Created the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research 2. Identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of human subjects and to develop guidelines that assure the research is in accordance to the principles. Belmont Report:(1978)- attempts to summarize the basic ethical principles identified by the commission; important historical document in the field of medical ethics; prompted in part by problems arising from the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972) Three key principles: Respect for the persons: protecting the autonomy of all people and treating them with courtesy and respect and allowing for informed consent. Researchers must be truthful and conduct no deception. Beneficence: the philosophy of “Do not harm” while maximizing benefits for the research project and minimizing risks to the research subjects. Justice: ensuring reasonable, non-exploitative, and well-considered procedures are administered fairly- the fair distribution of costs and benefits to potential research participants- and equally Institutional review board (IRB): Health and Human Services • Must have at least 5 members • Should have members who are familiar with vulnerable populations • Men and women • Must not be all the same profession • Must contain one scientist and one non-scientist Beneficence: the philosophy of “Do not harm” while maximizing benefits for the research project and minimizing risks to the research subjects. Neuroethics: What if a brain tumor is discovered during non-clinical research participation. What do you do? Nonmaleficence: Acting to promote the welfare of the people you deal with Fidelity and responsibility (APA): Act professionally in ways that support the discipline and benefit the people they work with. Confidentiality: practice that nobody outside a research project has access to data that can be identified with a specific individual Informed Consent: o Purpose o Procedures o Risks and discomforts o Benefits o Alternative to participation o Confidentiality o Who to talk to for more information o Refusal or withdrawal statement o Injury statement o Consent statement o Signatures Assent: th th o Assent for children over 12 (5 or 8 grade reading level) Debriefing: have to tell people what happened if you use deception Cost-benefit analysis: Evaluation of the risks that participants face in a study (i.e. the cost) vs the relative potential benefit of the outcome of the investigation (the benefit). Authorship: (ASHA’s Research Ethics Position Statement) ­All and only those involved in the project get credit –No “honorary/gift” or “ghost” authorships  Plagiarism: use of another person’s ideas, processes, results or words – Proposing, performing, reviewing or reporting research • Self‐ plagiarism – Publication of the same content by the same author Conflicts of Interest: (ASHA’s Research Ethics Position Statement) ­Full disclosure! You have to put a footnote in the paper! –Personal, financial, or other external incentives that might be perceived as biasing –When the funding source of a study might bias the research (e.g. drug company). –Have to put it in a cover letter when you submit your paper. Desensitizing Debriefing: have to tell people what happened if you use deception Dehoaxing HIPAA: Health Info Privacy Act Anonymity: practice of maintaining records so that nobody can identify which person is associated with which dataset Confidentiality: practice that nobody outside a research project has access to data tht can be identified with a specific individual. Occam’s razor: law of parsimony, when competing hypotheses are equal in other respects, select the hypothesis with the fewest entities, while still sufficiently answering Inductive reasoning: A form of reasoning in which a generalized conclusion is formulated from particular instances Deductive reasoning: A form of reasoning in which conclusions are formulated about particulars from general or universal premises Type I error: probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. Type II error: probability of NOT rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false. Independent variable: A variable that is part of the situation that exist from which originates the stimulus given to a dependent variable. Includes treatment, state of variable, such as age, size, weight, etc. Dependent variable: A variable that receives stimulus and measured for the effect the treatment has had upon it. Control variable – Frequently used by researchers to rule out the influence of extraneous variables. Subjects who are in the control group do not receive the independent variable, while those in the experimental group do. Levels of evidence -- Typically, research evidence is classified according to levels based on the type and quality of research – Class III, the lowest level of evidence, is evidence provided by expert opinion, case studies, case reports, and studies with historical controls – Class II evidence is evidence provided by at least one or a better designed observational, clinical study with concurrent control
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