final exam study guide.doc

6 Pages
49 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Course
CSCD 3233
Professor
Krakow
Semester
Fall

Description
Basic Speech Science 2013 4th Exam Review Sheet Respiration General  Boyle’s Law: • Volume and pressure are inversely related • Raise volume  lower pressure & vice versa • Unequal pressures will always equalize if possible  Airways: nasal/oral cavity  pharynx  larynx  trachea  bronchi bronchioles  alveoli  Alveoli = Air exchange (air rich in carbon dioxide exchanged for air rich in oxygen)  Medulla Oblongata: reflex seat for respiration in the brain, initiates nerve impulses to certain thoracic muscles, signaled when fresh oxygen is needed  Thorax (vertebrae, ribs, sternum, diaphragm): • Thorax contains lungs, heart, and respiratory airways • Back is spinal column • Sides = 12 pairs of ribs • Front is sternum • Bottom is diaphragm  Pleural Linkage • Costal (parietal) pleura: membrane that lines the rib cage • Pulmonary (visceral) pleura: covers the lungs • Thin layer of viscous fluid (sticky, adhesive) between the two  Respiratory Cycle Division Resting: 40 (inhale) : 60 (exhale) Speech: 10:90 Terms for Lung Volumes (approximate values in liters)  Tidal volume: the amount of air exchanged during the ins and outs of quiet breathing (~5 liters)  Vital capacity: the amount of air exchanged during a maximum inhalation and exhalation (~5 liters)  Inspiratory reserve: Volume difference between the amount of air inhaled and the potential (100% vital capacity – ending inhalation level)  Expiratory reserve: Volume difference between the amount exhaled and the potential (ending exhalation level – 0 VC)  Residual volume: 2 liters that must remain in the lungs at all times to keep the lungs from collapsing  Total lung volume: how much air can be in the lungs if the maximum amount is there (about 7 liters)  Resting volume - 40% of vital capacity - Comfort volume of lungs and ribcage (at rest) - Ending expiratory level for tidal breathing Inhalation • Increase volume in lungs  decrease pressure  airflows in • (Spinal) Phrenic Nerve (cervical nerve)-- diaphragm • (Spinal) Thoracic nerves  external intercostals & interchondral internal intercostals • For speech, add secondary muscles (further expand thorax): • Pectoralis Major • Pectoralis Minor • Costal Levators • Serratus Anterior • Serratus Posterior Superior • Latissimus Dorsi • Scalenus Muscle Group *Recognize names and that they function as a group Exhalation • Decrease volume in lungs  increase pressure  air flows out • Resting Breathing Relaxation pressure: elastic recoil, torque, gravity • Speech Breathing - Checking action: inhalation muscles active during exhalation, used to check/counter the strong exhalation forces - Augmenting action: as the system approaches REL, and relaxation forces are reduced, exhalation muscles are used to keep the pressure constant (can push below REL as well) - Exhalation Muscles in Speech: • Rectus Abdominis • Transversus Abdominus • External Abdominis Obliques • Internal Abdominus Obliques Thoracic nerves  abdominals and interosseous internal intercostals Relaxation Pressure Curve with muscle forces needed to balance the passive pressures To exhale: positive pressure To inhale: negative pressure (vacuum) The pressure needed to bring system back to 40% VC - Pressure to inhale is left of 0 
More Less

Related notes for CSCD 3233

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit