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Communication Sciences and Disorders
CSCD 3233

Basic Speech Science 2013 4th Exam Review Sheet Respiration General  Boyle’s Law: • Volume and pressure are inversely related • Raise volume  lower pressure & vice versa • Unequal pressures will always equalize if possible  Airways: nasal/oral cavity  pharynx  larynx  trachea  bronchi bronchioles  alveoli  Alveoli = Air exchange (air rich in carbon dioxide exchanged for air rich in oxygen)  Medulla Oblongata: reflex seat for respiration in the brain, initiates nerve impulses to certain thoracic muscles, signaled when fresh oxygen is needed  Thorax (vertebrae, ribs, sternum, diaphragm): • Thorax contains lungs, heart, and respiratory airways • Back is spinal column • Sides = 12 pairs of ribs • Front is sternum • Bottom is diaphragm  Pleural Linkage • Costal (parietal) pleura: membrane that lines the rib cage • Pulmonary (visceral) pleura: covers the lungs • Thin layer of viscous fluid (sticky, adhesive) between the two  Respiratory Cycle Division Resting: 40 (inhale) : 60 (exhale) Speech: 10:90 Terms for Lung Volumes (approximate values in liters)  Tidal volume: the amount of air exchanged during the ins and outs of quiet breathing (~5 liters)  Vital capacity: the amount of air exchanged during a maximum inhalation and exhalation (~5 liters)  Inspiratory reserve: Volume difference between the amount of air inhaled and the potential (100% vital capacity – ending inhalation level)  Expiratory reserve: Volume difference between the amount exhaled and the potential (ending exhalation level – 0 VC)  Residual volume: 2 liters that must remain in the lungs at all times to keep the lungs from collapsing  Total lung volume: how much air can be in the lungs if the maximum amount is there (about 7 liters)  Resting volume - 40% of vital capacity - Comfort volume of lungs and ribcage (at rest) - Ending expiratory level for tidal breathing Inhalation • Increase volume in lungs  decrease pressure  airflows in • (Spinal) Phrenic Nerve (cervical nerve)-- diaphragm • (Spinal) Thoracic nerves  external intercostals & interchondral internal intercostals • For speech, add secondary muscles (further expand thorax): • Pectoralis Major • Pectoralis Minor • Costal Levators • Serratus Anterior • Serratus Posterior Superior • Latissimus Dorsi • Scalenus Muscle Group *Recognize names and that they function as a group Exhalation • Decrease volume in lungs  increase pressure  air flows out • Resting Breathing Relaxation pressure: elastic recoil, torque, gravity • Speech Breathing - Checking action: inhalation muscles active during exhalation, used to check/counter the strong exhalation forces - Augmenting action: as the system approaches REL, and relaxation forces are reduced, exhalation muscles are used to keep the pressure constant (can push below REL as well) - Exhalation Muscles in Speech: • Rectus Abdominis • Transversus Abdominus • External Abdominis Obliques • Internal Abdominus Obliques Thoracic nerves  abdominals and interosseous internal intercostals Relaxation Pressure Curve with muscle forces needed to balance the passive pressures To exhale: positive pressure To inhale: negative pressure (vacuum) The pressure needed to bring system back to 40% VC - Pressure to inhale is left of 0 
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