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CSCD 1108 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Phoneme, Grammar, Vowel


Department
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Course Code
CSCD 1108
Professor
Brian D.Mchugh
Study Guide
Midterm

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CSCD 1108
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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Introduction to Linguistics
I. Course Objectives & Fundamental Questions
i. What is linguistics?
ii. Linguistics = science of language
1. A linguists approach to language is objective & descriptive
iii. What is language?
1. a special type of communication system
2. as vehicle of thought, cognition, symbolism (semiotic system), social
interaction
3. as defining characteristic of human beings
II. Arbitrariness in Language
i. All forms of communication are semiotic systems- systems of signs
ii. Signs are things that represent something and may be iconic, indexical or arbitrary
1. Icons: resemble what they represent
a. Road sign w/ silhouette of deer
2. Indexical: signs bear a predictable relationship to what they mean based on
facts of nature
a. Smoke=fire
3. Arbitrary: signs (symbols) have no intrinsic relation to their meaning & must
be memorized
a. some linguistic symbols (words) are partially iconic
a. such words are called onomatopoetic
III. Knowledge of language is…
i. Highly complex, unconsciously held; all its essential structures are acquired by the
age of 5
ii. Independent of intelligence & other cognitive skills
iii. Composed of both memorized material
1. Lexical items = words, primarily and systematic generalizations (rules,
constraints) about what are possible & impossible structures (sentences,
complex rules, syllables) in the language
iv. Modular, i.e. it can be broken down into five core subsystems
1. Phonetics: pronunciation mechanics
2. Phonology: pronunciation- mental representation
3. Morphology: word structure & the lexicon (mental inventory of words)
4. Syntax: sentence structure & word order
5. Semantics: meaning of words & sentences
v. Branches of Linguistics
1. 5 core subfields corresponding to the 5 modules mentioned above, cross-cut by
the interface disciplines of
2. sociolinguistics: interface w/ anthropology
3. pragmatics
4. historical linguistics: study of lg change
5. neurolinguistics: lg & mind/brain, child lg acquisition, lg
processing/production
vi. Speech & Writing
1. Speech is primary; writing is secondary
a. As kids we are first taught to think consciously about lg through the
process of learning to read or write, as a result we tend to confuse written
symbols (letters) w/ the things they represent
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IV. Linguistic Competence & Performance
i. Competence- your knowledge of how to speak a language
1. Your mental grammar vs. performance/how you actually speak on any given
occasion
ii. Your linguistic competence is governed by rules that you follow unconsciously,
which you were never explicitly taught, many of which you will not find in most
English grammar books
iii. Phonetic competence: rules governing the mechanics of the production or perception
of speech sounds
1. Or the signs in a sign language
iv. Phonological competence: rules governing possible relationships among speech
sounds
1. Or signs in a sign language
v. Morphological competence: rules telling you how to put together words, relationships
between words in the lexicon
vi. Syntax competence: rules implicit in the new sentences you create every time you
speak, governing word order, phrase & sentence structure
vii. Sematic competence: rules for assigning meanings to sentences & classifying word
meaning
viii. Pragmatic competence: conventions governing appropriate language use in context
ix. Sociolinguistic competence: principles of lg variation an it’s social/cultural
significance
V. Prescriptive Vs. Descriptive Rules of Grammar
i. “Grammar”: ‘rule-based semiotic system’ or ‘practice of formulating grammatical
rules’
ii. Three types of grammar needed to understand Prescriptive Vs. Descriptive
1. Your linguistic competence- your actual mental grammar, made up of lexicon
& rules or principles pertaining to phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax,
semantics, pragmatics
2. What linguistics practice; also the model they construct
3. Prescriptive (approach to) grammar: what English teachers teach, descriptive
(approach to) grammarers et al. practice & their model
4. Every dialect of every lg has a complete, logical grammar capable of
expressing all ideas, regardless of how many speakers it has, whether it is
written down or not, etc.
iii. Dialect: a variety of a lg associated w/ a particular social group
1. A group of nearly identical idiolects
iv. Idiolect: the variety of a lg spoken by a particular individual
1. A common layman’s view of grammar
2. Prescriptive grammar (artificial, consciously devised, based on naïve,
rationalistic subjective notions, not scientific information, imposes one
standard dialect, one associated w/ prestige, power onto all other dialects of a
lg)
a. Another common use of the term-pedagogical grammar
v. A practical tool for learning another lg (or anther dialect of one’s own lg)
1. Linguists study the mental grammar of a lg w/ a view to building a descriptive
model of it, w/ the ultimate goal of understanding universal grammar
(principles common to all lgs)
VI. Language vs. other forms of Communication (animal, nonverbal human communication)
i. All Semiotic/communication systems have the following four properties:
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