[ECED 2106] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (16 pages long)

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ECED 2106
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Four Theoretical Perspectives:
Nature vs. nurture
Nativist Perspective
Main theorist: Chomsky, Pinker
Emphasizes inborn or innate human capability
Chomsky: Language Acquisition Device
Pinker: language is an instinct, a biological adaptation to communicate information.
Cognitive Development Perspective
Main theorist: Piaget
Language is acquired as maturation occurs and cognitive competencies develop.
Cognitive development is a prerequisite and foundation for language learning.
Sensorimotor stage: 0-2 years old, prelinguistic
Object permanence: awareness that an object continues to exist even when it is out of sight.
Symbolic representation: child uses signs and symbols to response to new situations.
Schemata: items in our containers.
Preoperational Stage: ages 2-7, represent world with images and words.
Implications: match learning activities with child’s stage of cognitive development.
Behaviorist Perspective
Main theorist: Skinner
Association between stimuli, responses and reinforcements following the response.
Child is a “blank slate”
Language is taught through imitation and positive reinforcement.
Implications: Focus on stimuli and reinforcement
Interactionist perspective
Main theorist: Vygotsky, Bruner and Halliday
Believe that children acquire language through their attempts to communicate with the world
around them.
Vygotsky: emphasized role of social interactions.
Bruner: Language Acquisition Support System
Implications: Wide range of social interaction.
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