[KINS 1024] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 34 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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Temple
KINS 1024
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 13 Notes: Spinal Cord, Cranial Nerves, and Somatic Reflexes
Functions:
Conduction
o Contains bundles of nerve fibers that conduct info up and down cord
o Sensory info reaches brain
o Motor info reaches effectors
Neural Integration
o Spinal neurons receive input, integrate it, and execute the output
Locomotion
o Central pattern generators- produce sequence of outputs that cause alternating
movements of limbs (like walking)
o Walking involves repetitive contractions of several muscle groups
Reflexes
o Posture, motor coordination, protective responses to pain and injury
Surface Anatomy:
o
o cylinder of nervous tissue
o occupies only upper 2/3 of vertebral canal
o 31 pairs of spinal nerves
o Cervical, thoracic, lumber, and sacral regions
o Cervical enlargement gives rise to nerves of upper limbs
o Lumbar enlargement gives rise to nerves of pelvic regions and lower limbs
Meninges:
Fibrous membranes enclosing brain and spinal cord
Separate soft tissue of CNS from bones of vertebrae and skull
Dura
o Forms dural sheath, a loose fitting sleeve, around the spinal cord
o Collagenous membrane
o As thick as a rubber kitchen glove
o Epidural space is the space b/t the sheath and the vertebral bones occupied by
blood vessels, adipose tissue, and loose connective tissue
o Anesthetics placed in epidural space to block pain signals (anesthesia)
Arachnoid
o Simple squamous epithelium
o Loose mesh of collagenous and elastic fibers
o Subarachnoid space is between the arachnoid and pia mater and holds the CSF
o Lumbar cistern- occupied by cauda equina and CSF
o Lumbar puncture- spinal tap, CSF is taken
Pia
o Delicate, transparent membrane
o Follows contours of spinal cord
o Continues beyond medullary cone as a fibrous strand, the terminal filum, within
the lumbar cistern
o Combines with dura matter to form a coccygeal ligament that anchors the cord
and meninges to vertebrae Co1
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o Denticulate ligaments- extensions of pia extend to dura, anchoring the cord and
limiting side to side movements
Cross-Sectional Anatomy
The spinal cord consists of two kinds of nervous tissue called gray and white matter
Nervous tissue stained with silver compounds
Gray Matter
o Dull color
o Little myelin
o Somas, dendrites, and proximal parts of axon
o Site of synaptic contact
o Site of neural integration
o Abundance of glial cells
o Posterior root carries sensory nerve fibers
o Anterior roots carries somatic motor neurons
o Lateral horn contains neurons of sympathetic nervous system
White Matter
o Bright white color
o Abundance of myelin
o Composed of bundles of axons, called tracts, that carry signals from one level of
CNS to another
o Abundance of glial cells
Spinal Tracts
o Ascending tracts- carry sensory information up the cord
o Descending tracts- conduct motor impulses down
o Most nerve fibers have their origin or destination at the brainstem, supports
cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres
o Decussation- tracts cross over opposite side of body
o Contralateral- origin and destination of a tract are on opposite sides of body
o Ipsilateral- same side of body
Ascending Tracts:
While traveling up, the sensory signals usually travel across three neurons
First-order neuron-detects stimulus and transmits signal to spinal cord/brainstem
Second-order neuron- goes as far as “gateway”/thalamus
Third-order neuron- carries signal to cerebral cortex
Major ascending tracts:
o Gracile fasciculus
Signals from midthoracic and lower parts of body
First order nerve fibers travel up ipsilateral side of cord and terminates at
medulla oblongata of brain stem
Carry signals for vibration, visceral pain, deep and discriminative touch,
and proprioception from lower limbs and trunk
o Cuneate fasciculus
Joins gracile fasciculus
Lateral portion of posterior column
Same sensory signals as gracile fasciculus
Ends at cuneate nucleus on ipsilateral side of medulla oblongata
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