KINS 1223 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Subset, Collagen, Glycolysis

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KINS 1223
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Glycocalyx
Unique fuzzy cell structure
o Carbohydrate portions of membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids
o Unique in everyone but identical twins
Functions
o Cell recognition, adhesion and protection
Plasma or cell membrane
Sticky surface helps bind adjacent cells together
Aids in cellular uptake from extracellular fluid
ID of bacteria and viruses by immune systems cells
Microvilli
Extensions of membrane
Function
o Increase surface area for absorption
o Brush boarder
Actin filaments shorten microvilli
Specialization of Plasma Membrane
Intercellular Junctions
o Adjacent cells are bound by lateral contacts
o All cells (except blood) anchored to each other or their matrix by
intercellular junctions
o Reduce or eliminate extracellular space
Tight junctions
o Proteins molecules in adjacent plasma membranes fuse together
o Forms impermeable junctions (zippers)
o Percent passage between
Desmosomes
o Proteins filaments hold adjacent cells together
o Plasma membranes do not touch
o Prevent separations of tissue layers
o Resist tension force
o Example : Uterus, Heart and epidermis
Gap Junctions
o Connect cells by hollow cylinder composed of transmembrane proteins
called connexons
o Allows small molecules and electrical excitation pass through connexons
o Example: Cardiac and Smooth Muscle
The Cytoplasm
Organelles
o Specialized tasks
o Have a membrane
Nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, perioxisome, endoplasmic
reticulum and golgi comple
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Do not have membrane
Ribosome, centrosome, centriole, basal bodies
Cytosol
Clear strctureless cells
Mitochondria fuel breakdown and release of energy
Ribosome protein synthesis
Rough endoplasmic reticulum protein synthesis
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum lipid metabolism/ synthesis of cholesterol
Golgi complex refines and packages protein
Lysosomes autophagy/ autolysis; contain digestive enzymes for the breakdown of
biological material;
Nucleus contain the cell DNA
Cytoplasmic Organelles
Mitochondria: does duel break down and energy release
A two layer membrane
Ribosomes:
Manufactured in nucleolus
Migrate to the cytoplasm
Two types of ribosomes
Free ribosomes: make protein for cellular use
Membrane bound ribosomes
It has two sun-units
Tiny spherical particles of ribosomal RNA
The structure of DNA is important during genetic process of translation
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Network of flattened sacs, elongated canals, and fluid filled vesicles
Rough ER
Covered with ribosomes
Continuous with nuclear envelope and Smooth ER
Synthesis of packaged proteins
Lacks ribosomes
Functions
Lipid metabolism
Synthesis of cholesterol
Detoxification of drugs
Absorptions, synthesis, transportation of fats
Golgi Complex
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Document Summary

Unique fuzzy cell structure: carbohydrate portions of membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids, unique in everyone but identical twins. Functions: cell recognition, adhesion and protection. Sticky surface helps bind adjacent cells together. Aids in cellular uptake from extracellular fluid. Id of bacteria and viruses by immune systems cells. Increase surface area for absorption: brush boarder. Intercellular junctions: adjacent cells are bound by lateral contacts, all cells (except blood) anchored to each other or their matrix by intercellular junctions, reduce or eliminate extracellular space. Tight junctions: proteins molecules in adjacent plasma membranes fuse together, forms impermeable junctions (zippers, percent passage between. Desmosomes: proteins filaments hold adjacent cells together, plasma membranes do not touch, prevent separations of tissue layers, resist tension force, example : uterus, heart and epidermis. Gap junctions: connect cells by hollow cylinder composed of transmembrane proteins called connexons, allows small molecules and electrical excitation pass through connexons, example: cardiac and smooth muscle. Organelles: specialized tasks, have a membrane.

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