KINS 1223- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 136 pages long!)

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Less oxidized and thus has more calories/gram. 3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol molecule (dehydration synthesis) Saturated: cannot put any more hydrogens on carbons. Fatty acids differ by number and arrangement of carbon and hydrogen. Fatty acids: 2 general categories, saturated and unsaturated. Liquid at room temp (margarine, corn oil, soybean oil) 2 or more double carbon bonds=polyunsat. hydrogen. Unsaturated- double bonded carbon atoms that could form a bond with an additional. Phosphorus group give phospholipids distinct chemical properties. Fatty acid tail- faces away from water (inward) Also call fibrous proteins (strand like appearance) Collagen: bone, tendon, ligament: functional or globular proteins. Not changed or used up in reaction. Enzymes (lower) the activation energy need to trigger reaction. Enzymatic reaction steps: enzyme temporarily binds to substrate, active site, precise fit, covalent bonds broken, enzyme-substrate complex. Internal rearrangement: forms new product, enzyme releases new product, enzyme unchanged. Nucleotides are building blocks of nucleic acids. Control structure and function of entire organism.

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