KINS 1223- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 136 pages long!)

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KINS 1223
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 4 : EXAM THURSDAY, SEPT 15th.
Lipids
Hydrophobic organic molecule
Dooooooo noooooot like water
Less oxidized and thus has more calories/gram
Five primary types in humans
Fatty acids
Triglycerides
Phospholipids
9 calories/gram lipids
Energy dense
Triglycerides
3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol molecule (dehydration synthesis)
At room temp.
When liquid called oils
Often polyunsaturated fats from plants
When solid called fat
Saturated fats from animals
Function-energy storage, insulation and shock absorption
Neutral fats or Triglycerides
Glycerol same for all fats
Many different fatty acids
Saturated: cannot put any more hydrogens on carbons
Fatty acids
Chain of usually 4-24 carbon atoms
Mostly hydrogen attached
Fatty acids differ by number and arrangement of carbon and hydrogen
Fatty acids: 2 General Categories, Saturated and Unsaturated
Unsaturated- double bonded carbon atoms that could form a bond with an additional
hydrogen
Liquid at room temp (margarine, corn oil, soybean oil)
1 double carbon bonds=monounsat.
2 or more double carbon bonds=polyunsat.
Phospholipids****
Phosphorus group give phospholipids distinct chemical properties
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Phosphorus base (Head) is water soluble
Hydrophilic
Fatty acid (Tail) is water insoluble
Hydrophobic
In water- phospholipids orient into lipid bilayer
Double layer of phospholipids
Base or head-faces water
Fatty acid tail- faces away from water (inward)
Plasma Membrane review
*image*
Protein Organization by Function
1. Structural Proteins
- Also call Fibrous Proteins (strand like appearance)
- Provide tensile strength
- Insoluble
- Chemically very stable
- Examples
- Collagen: Bone, Tendon, Ligament,
2. Functional or Globular Proteins
- Globular in shape
- Water soluble
- Mobile
- Chemically active:
- Crucial role in metabolism
- Unstable
Functional Proteins
When protein unravels called denatured
Change conformation (shape), change function
Can be reversible or irreversible
Heating egg denatures protein permanently
Enzymes
Function as biological catalysts
Regulate reaction rates
Not changed or used up in reaction
Some enzymes
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Document Summary

Less oxidized and thus has more calories/gram. 3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol molecule (dehydration synthesis) Saturated: cannot put any more hydrogens on carbons. Fatty acids differ by number and arrangement of carbon and hydrogen. Fatty acids: 2 general categories, saturated and unsaturated. Liquid at room temp (margarine, corn oil, soybean oil) 2 or more double carbon bonds=polyunsat. hydrogen. Unsaturated- double bonded carbon atoms that could form a bond with an additional. Phosphorus group give phospholipids distinct chemical properties. Fatty acid tail- faces away from water (inward) Also call fibrous proteins (strand like appearance) Collagen: bone, tendon, ligament: functional or globular proteins. Not changed or used up in reaction. Enzymes (lower) the activation energy need to trigger reaction. Enzymatic reaction steps: enzyme temporarily binds to substrate, active site, precise fit, covalent bonds broken, enzyme-substrate complex. Internal rearrangement: forms new product, enzyme releases new product, enzyme unchanged. Nucleotides are building blocks of nucleic acids. Control structure and function of entire organism.

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