KINS 1223- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 55 pages long!)

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KINS 1223
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1.1 The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy- study of structure
Physiology- study of function
Unity of form and function
1.5 Human Structure
Organism- single, complete individual
Organ System- group of organs with a unique collective function
Circulation, respiration, digestion
Organ- structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a
particular function
● Tissue- mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ
functions
Epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular
Cells- smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life
● Organelles- microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions
Mitochondria, centrioles, lysosomes
● Molecules-organelles and other cell components are composed of “ “
● Atom-smallest particle with unique chemical identities
Molecules are made up of two atoms
1.5 Questions:
1) In the hierarchy of human structure, what is the level between the organ system and
tissue? Between cell and molecule?
a) Organ
b) Organelles
2) How are tissues relevant to the definition of an organ?
a) Tissues are relevant to the definition of an organ because an organ is a structure
composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a function
3) Why is reductionism a necessary but not sufficient point of view for fully understanding a
patient’s illness?
a) One could never predict the human personality from a complete knowledge of the
circuitry of the brain of genetic sequence of DNA
1.6 Characteristics of Life
Collection of properties that help distinguish living from nonliving things
Organization: maintain order
Breakdown in this order is accompanied by disease and often death
Cellular Composition: living matter is always compartmentalized into one or more
cells
○ Metabolism: sum of all reactions in the body
Anabolism- simple molecules to complex
Catabolism- complex molecules to simple
Homeostasis- ability for organism to maintain stable internal conditions
Development- any change in form or function over the life time of the
organism
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Differentiation- transformation of cells with no specialized function
into cells that are committed to a particular task
Growth- increase in size
Add more sugar molecules
Reproduction: All living organisms can produce copies of themselves
Passing genes onto new
Evolution: genetic change from generation to generation
Homeostasis and Negative Feedback
Homeostasis- body’s ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it
and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions
Dynamic Equilibrium (balanced change)- certain set point for a given variable
and conditions fluctuate around the dynamic equilibrium
Negative Feedback- body senses a change and activates mechanisms that
reverse it
Key for maintaining health
Blood temp and vasodilation- widening of blood vessels
Heat conserving vasoconstriction- narrowing of blood vessels
Receptor: senses change in the body
Integrating (control) center: mechanism that processes that information,
relates it to other available information
Effector: cell/organ that carries out the final corrective action
Positive Feedback and Rapid Change
Positive feedback- physiological change leads to even greater change in the
same direction
Self amplifying
Gradients and Flow
Gradient: difference in chemical concentration, electrical charge, physical
pressure, temperature, or other variable between one point and another
Down the gradient: high to low
Up the gradient: low to high
Pressure gradient: high blood pressure near the heart to low pressure farther
away
Ex: when you turn on hose, high pressure point at tap and low pressure at
the open end
Concentration Gradients: chemicals flow down
Electrical Gradients: charged particles flow down electrical gradients
High concentration of Na+ outside of cell and lower one inside
Inside: -, Outside: +
When we open channels that let sodium pass, sodium ions rush into the
cell, flowing down their electrical gradient
Na+ carries positive charge,, constitutes an electrical current through the
membrane
Nerves fire, heart beat, and muscles contract
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Document Summary

Organ system- group of organs with a unique collective function. Organ- structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a. Tissue - mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ particular function functions. Cells- smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life. Organelles- microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions. Molecules- organelles and other cell components are composed of . Molecules are made up of two atoms. Collection of properties that help distinguish living from nonliving things. Breakdown in this order is accompanied by disease and often death. Cellular composition: living matter is always compartmentalized into one or more. Metabolism : sum of all reactions in the body cells. Homeostasis- ability for organism to maintain stable internal conditions. Development- any change in form or function over the life time of the organism.

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