KINS 2203- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 39 pages long!)

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KINS 2203
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1: Structure and Function of Exercising Muscle
Intro
3 types of muscle
1. Smooth
- Involuntary
- Walls of blood vessels to allow them to constrict/dilate to regulate
blood flow
- Walls of organs to move food through body, expel urine, or give
birth
2. Cardiac
- Only in the heart
- Involuntary control
- Input from nervous and endocrine systems
3. skeletal
- Conscious control
- Attach to bone to help move it
- Make up the musculoskeletal system
- 600+
Functional Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
Epimysium
- Outer layer
- Surrounds whole muscle to hold it together
Perimysium
- Surrounds each bundle/fasciculi
Endomysium
- Covers each muscle fiber/muscle cell
- Muscle cells have multiple nuclei
- Muscle bellies divided into compartments/transverse fibrous bands
- Compartmentalization makes muscle fibers shorter
- Many muscle fibers make up each muscle
Muscle Fibers
Plasmalemma
- Plasma membrane that surrounds each muscle fiber
- Part of the sarcolemma, larger unit (made up of plasmalemma and
basement membrane)
- Fuses with the tendon
- Tendons are made up of connective tissue to carry the force made by
muscle fibers to the bones to allow motion...tendon attaches fibers to
bone
- Looks like folds on the fiber when the fiber is contracted or rested, but
unfolds when the fiber stretches
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- The folds help to allow stretching of the fiber without bothering the
plasmalemma
- Has junctional folds at the motor end plate in the innervation area to
help transmit the action potential from the motor neuron to the fiber
- Helps maintain acid-base balance
- Helps transport metabolites form the capillary blood→ fiber
-Satellite cells are between the plasmalemma and basement membrane
and help with the growth of skeletal muscle and its adaptation,
immobilization and training
Sarcoplasm
- Figure 1.3
- Inside the plasmalemma are myofibrils which help contract
-Sarcoplasm is the gelatin substance between the myofibrils...cytoplasm
of the myofibrils
- Made up of dissolved proteins, minerals, glycogen, organelles, and fats
- Has lots of stored glycogen and myoglobin which makes it a unique
cytoplasm
- Transverse tubules
T-Tubules
Extension of plasmalemma that move laterally through fiber
Allow impulses to be transmitted from the plasmalemma to the
individual myofibrils
Interconnected
Create pathway from the outside to the inside of the iber to allow
substances to enter the cell and waste to leave
- Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Longitudinal
SR
Loop around the myofibrils
Storage site for calcium which is needed for contraction
Myofibrils
Each muscle fiber is made up of thousands of myofibrils
Myofibrils are made up of sarcomeres: the basic contractile element of skeletal
muscle
Sarcomeres
- Skeletal muscle is striated: dark regions called A bands alternate with
light regions called I bands
- each A band has a lighter area called the H zone which only shows in a
relaxed myofibril...there's a dark line in the middle of the H zone called the
M line
- Each I band have a dark stripe called the Z disk/line
- Basic functional unit of a myofibril and contractile unit of muscle
- A myofibril is made up of many sarcomeres joined at the Z disk
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Document Summary

Chapter 1: structure and function of exercising muscle. Walls of blood vessels to allow them to constrict/dilate to regulate blood flow. Walls of organs to move food through body, expel urine, or give birth: cardiac, skeletal. Attach to bone to help move it. Surrounds whole muscle to hold it together. Muscle bellies divided into compartments/transverse fibrous bands. Many muscle fibers make up each muscle. Plasma membrane that surrounds each muscle fiber. Part of the sarcolemma , larger unit (made up of plasmalemma and basement membrane) Tendons are made up of connective tissue to carry the force made by muscle fibers to the bones to allow motiontendon attaches fibers to bone. Looks like folds on the fiber when the fiber is contracted or rested, but unfolds when the fiber stretches. The folds help to allow stretching of the fiber without bothering the plasmalemma.

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