Study terms - Chapter 5 -Synapses.doc

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Neuroscience - CLA
NSCI 1051

SYNAPTIC FUNCTIONS  Chapter 5 Synaptic transmission The process of information transfer at a synapse Electrical synapse • Allow the direct transfer of ionic current from one cell to the next • Occur at gap junctions Chemical synapse • Presynaptic activity stimulates the release of neurotransmitter, which activates receptors in the postsynaptic membrane Gap junction • Narrow gap spanned by proteins called connexins • Six connexins form a channel (connexon) and two connexons, one from each cell, combine to form a gap junction • Allows ions to pass directly from cytoplasm of one cell to cytoplasm of another • Allow ionic current to pass equally well in both directions (electrical synapse) • 3 nm seperate the two cell membranes Presynaptic potential Postsynaptic potential A change in the postsynaptic membrane potential by the presynaptic action of an electrical synapse, or a synaptically released neurotransmitter Glutamate An amino acid; the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS (too much causes seizures) GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) An amino acid synthesized from glutamate; the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS Glycine An amino acid; an inhibitory neurotransmitter at some locations in the CNS Acetylcholine An amine that serves as a neurotransmitter and many synapses in the PNS and CNS, including the neuromuscular junction Transporter Puts neurotransmitters inside the vesicle after they are synthesized (in the cytosol of the axon terminal ) Voltage gated calcium channel • Opened by depolarization of the ter
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